Case 4

Teammates: Kelly Mulvaney, Bishoy Youhana, Megan Lindle

Part 1: Ethical Decision Making 

Step 1: Determine the facts in the situation:

Implicit facts:

  • Due to their inability to conduct research on the matter, the women believe feeding their children gruel is highly beneficial. This is probably a cultural norm that everyone has just gone along with for decades without concrete proof it is sufficient.
  • No readily available testing – if they have HIV they might not even know
  • The women do not necessarily know how the pesticides might affect the children

Explicit facts:

  • HIV/AIDS is very prevalent in the region.
  • 35% of children in the region is stunted due to poor nutrition
  • The child’s main source of nutrition is from the gruel that is made out of maize and bananas
  • We have 500 women willing to join the co-operative.
  • The crops that will be used for making the porridge are often exposed to pesticides which can have adverse effects on the children.
  • Few women are tested for HIV/AIDS
  • There is a higher chance of transmitting HIV through breastfeeding

Assumptions: 

  • We are assuming that the cooperative will make products that are affordable for the women.

Primary issue: 

  • Breastfeeding can be potentially harmful in regions where HIV cases are prevalent since it can increase the chances of transmitting the disease to the children.
  • Alternative nutritional supplements such as porridge can be offered as a possible alternative to breastfeeding and reduce the growth stunting numbers in the region. However, the ingredients that go into making these are known to be exposed to pesticides which can potentially harm the babies.

Step 2 & 3: Define the Stakeholders and Motivations (personal vs professional)

  • The children: 
    1. Personal:
      1. Want the porridge to taste good
      2. Need food that will help them grow
    2. Professional: None 
  • The mothers: 
    1. Personal:
      1. Want their children to be properly fed (no pesticides) and HIV/AIDS free 
    2. Professional:
      1. Make money
  • Myself/the cooperative: 
    1. Personal:
      1. Improve nutritional status of the children and improve the livelihoods of rural communities
    2. Professional:
      1. Build credibility to get more funding for future projects
  • The women who joined the cooperative:
    1. Personal:
      1. Income opportunity
      2. passion for the cause
    2. Professional:
      1. To produce nutrient packed porridge using locally grown produce.
  • Government/other groups (secondary):
    1. Personal:
      1. Want to reduce growth stunting cases to go down
      2. Improve livelihoods.
    2. Professional:
      1. Develop the country overall
  • Donors (secondary):
    1. Personal: 
      1. Improve livelihoods of the families and reduce the growth stunting
    2. Professional: None

Step 4: Formulate (at least three) alternative solutions:

  1. Exclusively breastfeed children- The mothers could simply breastfeed the children until they no longer need it because breastfeeding can provide essential nutrients that can’t be replicated at an affordable price point.
    1. Ethical principle: consequence based thinking
    2. Pros: 
      1. No risk kids receiving pesticides 
      2. The mothers will not be worried about feeding their children products that they are unfamiliar with
    3. Cons: 
      1. Kids will have poor nutrition
      2. Risk receiving HIV/AIDS from prolonged breastfeeding
  1. Guidebook/pamphlet detailing which fruits/vegetables contain which nutrients and when is the best time to serve this to their children (0-6 months, 6-12 months, etc.)
    1. Ethical principle: consequence based thinking and ethics of care
    2. Pros: 
      1. No dire need for prolonged breastfeeding (less risk for receiving HIV)
      2. Allows them to understand the benefits and proper nutrition that each food brings; each child will have a more well-balanced diet
    3. Cons: 
      1. Mothers may not be educated enough to utilize the guidebook
      2. Mothers may resort to archaic or traditional solutions rather than the guidebook
      3. May not be as cost-effective as the porridge.
      4. There still could be nutrients from breastmilk that these food lack
  2. Use the funds to develop a nutritious and shelf-stable porridge. Maybe use more of the funding to better process/wash off the pesticides before they can go into making the porridge.
    1. Ethical principle: consequence-based thinking 
    2. Pros:
      1. This way the mothers could be assured that their children would not get HIV from prolonged breastfeeding 
      2. Children will have the essential plus supplementary nutrition from the porridge which can help reduce growth stunting. 
      3. Still will receive nutrients from breast milk; this would be used after the baby is 6 months 
    3. Cons:
      1. Risk receiving pesticides
      2. Will not have enough funding left to market the product 
      3. The baby might still have HIV from birth

Step 5: Seek additional assistance, as appropriate – previous cases, peers, reliance on personal experience, inner reflection 

  • Pesticides are more common in fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry, and fish
  • Pesticides can bio-accumulate in the body. Most people don’t consume enough for it to be fatal, however, the neurotoxins can harm small children.
  • In children, pesticides pose a threat to the developing brain and the nervous system.
  • Most East African countries import their pesticides from Europe 
  • AIDS is one of the leading causes of death in East Africa
  • 25% of babies born to women with HIV will also be infected

Step 6: Select the best course of action – that solves the problem, saves face, and has the best short term and long-term implications for your relationship and venture. Explain reasoning and discuss your solution vis-a-vis other approaches discussed in class. 

Solution: Use the funds to develop a nutritious and shelf-stable porridge and use more of the funding to better process/wash off the pesticides before they can go into making the porridge. This way-

  • Children will receive good nutrition.
  • Children will not be dependent on prolonged breastfeeding for nutrients (decreasing the risk of HIV)
  • It would reduce the risk of receiving pesticides but would cost a bit more money.

This solution allows the children to not depend on breastfeeding as the only source of nutrients, thus making sure they don’t practice prolonged breastfeeding, reducing the risk of HIV. This also allows the children to receive a good amount of nutrients from the porridge, reducing malnutrition. However, it is more expensive to implement than the other two solutions proposed, and does risk the children receiving pesticides, but if resources are allocated correctly, fruits should be washed carefully, so the pesticide level in the porridge will be minimal. 

Having the porridge would be an excellent solution supplement to breastfeeding since it would provide some nutrients that breastfeeding cannot provide. Additionally, processing the local produce before making the porridge with them would let the local women working at the cooperative know that pesticides are harmful and they might share this knowledge with other locals of the region. If done right this might even be able to spark some change in agricultural practices. An advantage of this would be that there could be an important shift from using store-bought pesticides to natural pesticides and herbicides like manure.

Step 7:  Implications of your solution on the venture

 

  • Technology-  the technological implications of the solution would be that it would require more physical capitals such as extra machines to better clean the produce to reduce the potential risk of pesticide residue from the porridge. However, this might also spark a change in the agricultural field since if farmers are aware that the pesticides they use on the produce is harmful, then they would likely use natural pesticides which would help make the solution more cost efficient.
  • Economic- the economic implications of the solution is that a lot more money would go in the making of the product. There would be a lot less money allocated for the marketing of the product since many of the target market is unfamiliar with the product. Although this is not necessarily a bad thing, it might not be sustainable for the venture to use local produce to manufacture the porridge in the long run especially if they cannot sell enough of them.
  • Social-  the solution has a major social implication in that it is sort of based on the assumption that the consumers of this region would even buy the porridge in the first place. Since mothers in this region are culturally accustomed to exclusively breastfeeding their children, it would be difficult to market the product since it would essentially mean changing their way of doing things. However, if done correctly, the porridge could be supplemented with breastfeeding and would be incredibly helpful with bringing down the growth stunting rate of the region.
  • Environmental- the environmental implication of this solution would be that the processing of the produce might leave behind harmful chemicals that might hurt the surrounding environment if they are not taken care of properly.

Part 2: Grassroots Diplomacy

Step 1: Determine the facts in the situation:

Facts: 

  • The women have a chance to sell their locally grown produce to the cooperative
  • They like this arrangement because it saves them time and money
  • When they bring the money back home, they are forced to give it to the males
  • Men spend the money on alcohol and other things
  • The twin outcomes of the cooperative are not achieved
  • I only have 6 months left at this cooperative
  • The other members of the board wants things to change as well
  • The women are not unhappy about giving their money to the males, but do not like the fact that the males don’t look after their families.

Issue: 

  • The women cannot use the money directly to improve the nutrition of their children because of aggressive male members of the family who take their money away and use it on alcohol and other frivolous things.

Step 2 & 3: Define the Stakeholders and Motivations (personal vs professional)

  • The children: 
    1. Personal:
      1. Want the porridge to taste good
      2. Need food that will help them grow
    2. Professional: None 
  • The mothers: 
    1. Personal:
      1. Want their children to be properly fed (no pesticides) and HIV/AIDS free 
    2. Professional:
      1. Make money
  • Myself/the cooperative: 
    1. Personal:
      1. Improve nutritional status of the children and improve the livelihoods of rural communities
    2. Professional:
      1. Build credibility to get more funding for future projects
  • The women who joined the cooperative:
    1. Personal:
      1. Income opportunity
      2. passion for the cause
    2. Professional:
      1. To produce nutrient packed porridge using locally grown produce.
  • Government/other groups (secondary):
    1. Personal:
      1. Want to reduce growth stunting cases to go down
      2. Improve livelihoods.
    2. Professional:
      1. Develop the country overall
  • Donors (secondary):
    1. Personal: 
      1. Improve livelihoods of the families and reduce the growth stunting
    2. Professional: None
  • Men:
    1. Personal:
      1. They just want the women’s money and want to spend it on desirable things for themselves.
    2. Professional: 
      1. Instead of spending money on alcohol, they could work with the women and make their own money.  
  • The six members of the leadership group: 
    1. Personal:
      1. They want what it best for the cooperation
      2. They want the women of the cooperation to use their own money instead of surrendering before their husbands because these members are local women who likely struggle with similar issues.
    2. Professional: 
      1. They want to achieve the twin outcomes of the cooperation.

Step 4,5,6: Formulate an alternative solution:

  • Optimal Solution: Bring together leaders in the community and discuss the issue immediately and talk about the ⅓ rule of payment. Essentially how it would work is, the cooperative would function as an equity firm. The workers can work for the cooperation and have one third of their income be given to them immediately, one-third be saved by the company as bonds and the rest of the money could be used to provide the women with high value products such as goats or chickens which can generate income for their families in the long term. The cooperation could establish a separate store at the cooperative where the workers could use the money right away to purchase these products. This would stop the males from taking the money away because they would already use the money to buy products. This solution also allows the women to generate income for their families for the long term without any major risks because they would be guaranteed their money in the future when the cooperation bond matures. The males would also likely be in favor of this decision because it would mean that they would receive more money in the future instead of a small sum immediately. This solution meets the twin goals because it incentivizes the women to keep working at the cooperation by providing essentials, securing their future through bonds and avoiding having to deal with the males of the households while also making sure that they get the necessary items the women need to properly take care of their families.
  • Pros: 
      • Gives immediate and long term benefits to the the women
      • Gives the men a reason to not take the money from the women immediately since they would get more in the future.
      • Allows the women to buy essential products like the porridge to feed their children which would help minimize the growth stunting in the region
  • Cons:
      • The men might be resistant to the idea of the women not having enough money to give to them and this might lead to abuse 
      • There could be a trust issue since the idea of bonds might be new to them
      • Getting only one third of the income at a time might not be sufficient for them to sustain their families
  • Short term implication of the venture:
      • In the short term the venture might run into problems of retaining the workers because having only one third of their income given to them at a time might not work out that well considering the fact that it would be a very low amount.
      • There would be alot of trust issues between the employees and the cooperation since this system of payment would be new to them.
  • Long term implications of the venture:
      • The cooperation could be able to sustain itself and thrive at some point if they are able to build trust with the women they employ.
      • The women would be happy since they would have a steady source of income as well a plan for their future.
      • This solution could potentially get the males to start doing something productive to earn their own money instead of relying on the women.
  • Saving face:
      • The women get a chance to save face since they do not need to confront the men regularly about their income since they would spend it on essential items.
      • The cooperation saves face by discussing their ideas with local leaders and getting them on board with their plan and allowing the women to get a steady source of income.
      • The men saves face by not relying on the women for money but getting a job to pay for their own things
      • The committee saves face by coming up with a great plan to achieve the twin outcome goals of the cooperation.
  • Assistance sought to come up with the solution:
    • The class discussion and the group discussion mainly helped in brainstorming ideas from which the group narrowed it down to this solution.

Implementation steps:

  • Apply grassroots diplomacy steps to bring about change in the large scale in the long run by talking to local leaders
  • Ask the women if the solution works for them 
    • Getting their feedback is very important
  • Validate the process and discuss with male leaders (25 to 30 males) and get them on board
  • Get recommendations from all of the stakeholders before making any major decisions
  • Hire people to handle the bonds/finance related activities 
  • Hire people to maintain the store
  • Take a survey from the women to see which items they spend the most money on
  • From this survey, buy products in bulk for the store
  • Get in touch with government officials/organizations to see if they can donate products to the store
  • Take surveys from the women in the future to see how the cooperation impacted their lives

 

Case Study 3

Case Study 3

Jack is an American student who works in a youth center, where he lives and interacts with the children. One day, he had given out gifts that the staff members had allocated to the children; however, the gifts ran out and four children did not receive gifts. The staff members did not seem concerned about the children, but Jack was concerned that they felt left out or forgotten after the incident. Initially, he approached the other staff members expressing his concern, but they dismissed it by saying, “if you think there is a problem, then you go ahead and solve it.” Jack wants to approach the situation by making sure the children don’t feel left out, make sure the children like him, and not be portrayed as the westerner activist. What would be the best solution?

Step 1: Determine the facts in the situation – obtain all of the unbiased facts possible

  • An international donor organization sent gifts for children under the age of 14 to a youth center in Kenya
  • Jack has spent five months at this youth center
  • Jack was asked to hand out the gifts and the children believed that Jack gave them the gifts
  • The gift-giving occurred in a grander fashion
  • There were not enough gifts for all the children, which caused four children to receive a substantially less important type of gift in a less grand fashion
  • Assumption: Four of the children blame Jack for not receiving a gift
    • One child made a face at Jack, indicating he blames Jack for not receiving a gift.
  • The staff does not think there is an issue with the four children not receiving gifts.
  • Black hat has a negative stigma attached to it.

 

Step 2: Define the problem and the stakeholders – those with a vested interest in the outcome

  • The children
  • Jack
  • The youth center workers
  • Kenya Youth Center
  • The international donor organization

 

Problem: How should Jack do the right thing while not putting his relationships with other stakeholders at risk of degrading.

 

Step 3: Determine and distinguish between the personal and professional motivations of the stakeholders.

  • The children
    • Personal: increased happiness and wellbeing, they may tease the kids who did not receive presents.
  • The four children who did not receive the gift
    • Feeling as special as the rest of the children who received a present ceremoniously.
  • Jack
    • Personal: To make sure all the kids are happy
    • Professional: Maintaining positive relationships with children and staff to achieve a successful social venture.
  • The youth center workers
    • Personal: Altruistically, make the children happy.
    • Professional: To continue positive operations.
  • Kenya Youth Center
    • Personal: Pride in their kids’ happiness.
    • Professional: make sure there is no tension between the employees.
  • The international donor organization
    • Professional: Increased philanthropic reputation
    • Personal: to give back to the impoverished communities

 

Step 4: Formulate (at least three) alternative solutions – based on information available, to have a win-win situation for your relationship and your venture.

  • Potential Solution 1: Leave the situation as it is.
  • How does it solve the problem?
    • Pros:
      • Make sure there is no tension between him and the staff.
    • Cons:
      • Jack doesn’t make all the children happy
  • How does it save face of those involved?
    • Jack does not come off as an activist which is perceived poorly from the staff
  • Implications on relationships
    • Short-term
      • Keep a positive attitude with the staff.
      • A quick fix to move on in the day to day progress of the center
      • Doesn’t create any tension in the relationships with that staff that can manifest in the long term
      • The 4 children will be unhappy with Jack.
    • Long-term
      • Could cause unresolved tension over how to handle future donations
      • Could cause the same situation to be repeated.
      • Could foster tension between the children—those who received gifts versus those who did not.
  • Implications on the venture
    • Short-term
      • Could cause Jack to want to end his five months stay sooner than expected if he feels unwanted
      • It could make the organization hesitate in choosing Lehigh or other organizations to help them or allow them to do studies
    • Long-term
      • Could cause Jack to not participate in another social venture in-country
      • Could cause the venture to reconsider sending anyone again if Jack felt unwelcome.

 

  • Potential Solution 2: Help the kids decorate their black hats with available arts and crafts tools.
  • How does it solve the problem?
    • Pros
      • Allows those four children to feel special
      • Turns their lower quality gift into something better and more valued
      • Helps to rebuild (and strengthen) the relationship between Jack and the kids
    • Cons
      • May cause other kids to be jealous.
      • The staff may see this tactic as activism.
      • May set the expectation of what Jack would do for the kids too high and lead the staff members to overload him with work.
      • Jack would have to take money out of his budget to pay for art supplies.
  • How does it save face of those involved?
    • It protects Jack from facing backlash from the children, saving his face.
  • Implications on relationships
    • Short-term
      • Aims to fix an issue in the relationship
      • Allows the four children to feel as valued as the rest of the children
    • Long-term
      • May cause the children to believe that they will get something special each time which they may not necessarily receive
      • Kids might still see their friends playing with their gifts and get jealous.
  • Implications on the venture
    • Short-term
      • Jack would have a good experience (from a good relationship with the staff and kids), so the venture would send more people.
    • Long-term
      • More and more people will be sent and the venture will be optimistic about sending volunteers like Jack.

 

  • Potential Solution 3: Offering each of the kids a chocolate bar (along with a short talk to comfort them)
  • How does it solve the problem?
    • Pros:
      • Makes the kids feel special
      • Allows the kids to fully understand the situation with the gift
    • Cons
      • Eating the chocolate will provide temporary satisfaction; once they see the other children playing with their gifts, they may feel left out again.
      • Extra costs on Jack.
  • How does it save face of those involved?
    • It protects Jack from facing backlash from the children, saving his face.
  • Implications on relationships
    • Short-term
      • The kids will enjoy the chocolate and forget about the gifts.
      • Their relationship with Jack will be stronger.
    • Long-term
      • Kids might still see their friends playing with their gifts and get jealous.
      • The children may take advantage of Jack’s feeling of guilt in the future. In other words, they make him feel guilty for him to provide them with chocolate or another type of gift.
  • Implications on the venture
    • Short-term
      • Jack would have a good experience (from a good relationship with the staff and kids), so the venture would send more people.
    • Long-term
      • May cause the venture to have added costs to bring in extra supplies to avoid conflicts like this in the future
      • More and more people will be sent and the venture will be optimistic about sending volunteers like Jack.
  • Alternative solutions (group discussion)
    • Make an activity out of hats – have them use hats in the skit b/c they were chosen.
    • Convince children to share their presents.

 

Step 5: Seek additional assistance, as appropriate – previous cases, peers, reliance on personal experience, inner reflection

    • Seek program Mentor
    • Ask previous American volunteers.
    • The experience about previous situations that you were in as a child and how it made you feel
    • Situations similar to this where you were an adult and had to deal with unfairness with immature people

Step 6: Select the best course of action – that solves the problem, saves face, and has the best short- term and long-term implications for your relationship and venture. Explain reasoning and discuss your solution vis-a-vis other approaches discussed in class.

    • Arts and crafts solution
    • This allows the four children to feel special and to understand that they were not forgotten about, and turns their bad gift into a better one, especially with the memory entailed with it.
    • Teaches the children indirectly how to make the best of unfortunate circumstances.
    • Avoids the dissatisfaction once they see the other children playing with their gifts, they may feel left out again.
    • However, this solution may cause other kids to be jealous of those 4 kids and may also put Jack in danger of being used by the staff (exploited) given they will see a western activist nature in him. The other children may also feel jealous about how Jack spent extra time with them.
    • Jack may have to use his own money to purchase art supplies if the center doesn’t have its supplies

Step 7: List the sequence of actions you will take to implement your solution.

Derived from an abridged version (6-step) of the 9-Step Process from “Applied Ethics Case of the Month Club”; adapted from a methodology developed by Andy Lau @ Penn State.

  1. Realize that talking with the staff is a waste of time and think of another solution
  2. Realize if he needs to earn the children’s trust and wants to make amends. He also doesn’t want the children to have temporary satisfaction.
  3. Next Jack comes up with the arts and crafts plan.
  4. Jack goes to the store to pick up the extra supplies that may be needed.
  5. He pulls the four kids to the side and asks if they want to decorate their hats
  6. After the children decorate their hats he apologies for not getting them a gift.
  7. If the staff asks about it then try to limit the conflict.

 

Case Study 2

A group of researchers want to test water sources in Lesotho for disease-causing problems. The testing requires a lot of collaboration with community members, who will take the researchers to the water sources. The issue here is whether the researchers should be expected to pay the individuals who help them. One may say I’d be willing to provide the same service for free, so they wouldn’t pay them; others would say it would be important to offer them something as a thank you for their help. If the people in Lesotho are nice enough to perform the task without expectations for a return, should we take advantage of this, or will it be exploitation?
Step 1: Determine the facts in the situation – obtain all of the unbiased facts possible. Clearly state the ethical issue.
• There are disease causing pathogens in their water
• In order to test the water and understand the source of water locally, researchers have to obtain help from locals
• Lesotho is a developing country
• The goal is to understand the lifecycle and characteristics of the pathogen
• Several publications are expected from the research study
• Assumption: IRB from institution and country
Step 2: Define the Stakeholders – those with a vested interest in the outcome
• University representing the study
• Locals- assisting this project
• “Big picture” locals
• Funding agents of this project
• Academics / Researchers
• Healthcare Workers
Step 3: Assess the motivations of the Stakeholders
• University representing the study
o Motivations: Reputation/ publications/ possible accolades from the project
• Locals- assisting this project
o Motivations: Safer water (Help community), added incentive(?), better reputation as a country (tourism).
• “Big picture” locals
o Motivations: Safer water -> Potential improved health
• Funding agents of this project
o Motivations: Reputation and the comprehensive profile. Revenue from investment.
• Academics / Researchers
o Motivations: Reputation, publication, experience, pay, helping community. Advertising for other ventures if research proves to be advantageous.
• Healthcare Workers
o Motivations: Improved health for the community.
Step 4: Formulate (at least three) alternative solutions – based on information available, using basic ethical core values as guide
Approaches
• Potential solution 1: Provide monetary incentive so they want to assist with the research
o Ethical Principle or code
 Care based thinking. We give back from people we take very important information from to ensure and maintain a solid and important relationship. It is also just to give back from individuals we take from.
o Pros:
This way community members will be more likely to assist with the project as there will be a monetary incentive that will possibly help them with daily expenditures. Since, the community members have a greater drive to help the researchers, the academics will not risk halting their research because there are no participants.
o Cons:
This approach will cost more money to be spent on gather participants, rather than being spent on the research itself. Some locals may get offended from the offer and not want to help us, while others will compete for the limited spots and may cause chaos.

• Potential solution 2: Provide a souvenir (water bottle filled with sampled clean water)
o Ethical Principle or code
 Care based thinking. We give back from people we take very important information from to ensure and maintain a solid and important relationship. It is also just to give back from individuals we take from.
o Pros
Providing the locals with a small water bottle (with the team’s or university’s logo) filled with clean water not only will create a motive to participate in the research, it’ll also create a reputation amongst the locals of how friendly the team is. The logo will serve as a remembrance for the locals of the team and their goal. The sampled clean water will give the locals perspective on what clean water tastes like and motivate them to support the project in hope of future improvement of their water. Academics will not risk halting their research simply because no one wants to participate and not risk anyone getting offended.
o Cons
It’ll be expensive as manufacturing and transporting the water bottles can be costly. Also, the logistics will be complicated and will consume the team’s times.
• Potential solution 3: Do not provide an incentive
o Ethical principle:
 Consequence based thinking: If locals will be willing to provide us with information without expecting a return, then there would be no reason we would give back and this would be for the greater good. Not waste or time and money.
o Pros
No time or money will be wasted on gathering participants, they will be concentrated more on the research itself.
o Cons
The locals will receive a bad first impression on the academics because they are not willing to offer them anything in return for their services. Less people will be willing to work on the project, thus there will be a risk of uncompletion.
• Potential solution 4: host workshops for education
o Ethical principle:
 Virtue based: Ethical to make sure they are educated and understand what is the goal and how they can help.
o Pros
This will educate the locals and give them an understanding on what the team is trying to accomplish, so they will gain their support. Probably wouldn’t cost as much as other solutions. It’ll be a great tool to create relationships with community members and build a reputation and trust for us among them and not risk anyone getting offended.
o Cons
Will consume time and money to organize.
Step 5: Seek additional assistance, as appropriate – engineering codes of ethics, previous cases, peers, reliance on personal experience, inner reflection
Seek additional assistance from community leaders, in particular women who transport the water.

Step 6: Select the best course of action – that which satisfies the highest core ethical values. Explain reasoning and justify. Discuss your stance vis-a-vis other approaches discussed in the class.
The best course of action: To provide a souvenir (water bottle filled with sampled clean water) along with workshops.
This is the best solution (ethically) because:
1. Providing a more educational based experience that allows for more of an understanding of the problem at hand allows for the research to be more ethical. (Clear understanding of why research is being conducted = more ethical solution because it creates for more equity)
2. Would still provide a tangible incentive (like money) but would decrease the amount of jealousy (for getting the money) which would help the community sustain a more positive community and social environment. Also, money would only be provided to one or a couple people, some will refuse to take money and be offended, while the bottles can be provided to more.
3. Providing locals with a souvenir would leave a reputation for us among them.
4. Solution 1 does not offer an education along with the incentive, so locals would do it only for the money, but this solution raises awareness alongside our research. Solution 3 would risk the academics not being able to complete the project as locals would not be as inclined to help them, and also does not provide a reputation among the community.
5. If chemical additives are added to the water in the future, there may be less resistance since locals are aware there is a problem with the water (given the built relationships trust, and reputation).
6. While this solution will be costly and time consuming, it is vital that there are good relationships between the resrach team and the locals. This relationship will later serve as a catalyst when they come to put the chemical additives and for future interactions in general. The solution would not be ideal if the funding is very limited; however, if it is feasible then the low cost bottles and a few lectures will go a long way into establishing an essential relationship for this research to succeed.
Step 7: (If applicable) What are the implications of your solution on the venture. Explain the impact of your proposed solution on the venture’s technology, economic, social and environmental aspects.
This solution may enable us as the academics as well as our institutions and sponsors to have a stronger relationship with the population of Lesotho. This may offer more opportunities. The team must ensure that the final solution does not affect the ecosystems in the water resources they are using.

Bishoy B Youhana