CINQ Blog #3 Case 2

Step 1: Determine the facts in the situation – obtain all of the unbiased facts possible

  1. Jack is in Kenya for 5 months
  2. Center for former street youth
  3. Jack was the gift distributor because he was a guest
  4. Gifts were from a separate donor
  5. The kids thought that Jack got the kids the gifts
  6. 4 kids didn’t get gifts and blamed Jack
  7. The 4 kids without gifts were unhappy
  8. The 4 kids got a black hat at the end
  9. Jack wants a good relationship with the kids and the center
  10. The people at the community center don’t care that the kids didn’t get gifts
  11. (Jack is Steve Suffian)

Step 2: Define the problem and the stakeholders

– those with a vested interest in the outcome
The problem is that 4 kids did not get gifts during a ceremony, and were given black hats afterward (unceremoniously)


  1. Jack
  2. Kids
    1. with and without gifts
  3. The Center and employees
  4. Funders of the gifts
  5. Funders of Jack’s venture

Step 3: Determine and distinguish between the personal and professional motivations of the stakeholders.

  1. Jack
    1. Personal: He wants to be liked
    2. Professional, wants to have a good long term relationship with the children while he is in Kenya.
  2. Kids who didn’t get the gifts: Everyone wants to be recognized in the ceremony and receive the same gifts
    1. Personal: No one wants to be left out,
    2. Professional: NA
  3. Kids who did receive gifts
    1. Personal: Feel superior to other kids who didn’t get gifts, might make fun of other children
    2. Professional: NA
  4. The center
    1. Personal: think Jack is dramatic and they just want to stop being bothered, might be offended if Jack comes in and criticizes them.
    2. Professional: They don’t want Jack to become a children’s rights activist → criticism for things that they are doing because they are working with what they have, they want to focus on bigger problems in the center and don’t want Jack to get in the way of their larger goal
  5. Funders of gifts
    1. Professional: Want to maintain a good reputation and a good relationship with the center for future gift-giving which is really just a form of publicity.
  6. Funders of Jack’s venture
    1. Professional: don’t want him to get sent home or be unable to do his work and lose their investment

Step 4: Formulate (at least three) alternative solutions – based on information available, to have a win-win situation for your relationship and your venture.

  1. Solution one: Jack can approach the children separately and give them real gifts by themselves – privately don’t involve the center
  • How does it solve the problem?
    o Pros: kids have the gifts
    o Cons: this will not improve their standing with the other children because it is not in the ceremony
  • How does it save face of those involved: Jack saves face with the children they will like him now
  • Implications on relationships
    o Short-term: kids will be happy and have a good relationship with Jack
    o Long-term: they might still feel awkward that they were left out and have strained relationships with the other kids
  • Implications on the venture
    o Short-term: kids more willing to take part in his study and may give better anecdotal evidence
    o Long-term: would need to get to the root of the problem – why did they withhold info from him?
  1. Solution two: Hold another non-related party but have Jack present those 4 kids gifts
  • How does it solve the problem?
    o Pros: kids will get the gifts ceremoniously and be recognized in front of their friends
    o Cons: kids might be embarrassed
  • How does it save face of those involved: children are saved face because they are given gifts in front of their friends, Jack saves face with the children
  • Implications on relationships
    o Short-term: Kids will be happy
    o Long-term: center might feel overlooked and resentful Jack worked around them
  • Implications on the venture
    o Short-term: it will be costly to buy new gifts and throw a new party
  • o Long-term: could harm the professional relationship between Jack and the children and Jack might have trouble continuing the work
  1. Solution Three: Do not give the children gifts
  • How does it solve the problem?
    o Pros: no cost and the center is left unbothered.
    o Cons: kids are sad and don’t get gifts   (aka it doesn’t solve the problem)
  • How does it save face of those involved – the center does not have to deal with Jack. There is no awkwardness of receiving gifts later
  • Implications on relationships
    o Short-term: kids may not like Jack or the center
    o Long-term: kids might be less willing to work with Jack and help him accomplish his goals
  • Implications on the venture
    o Short-term 4 kids are upset still but other kids probably don’t care
    o Long-term the center will be happy you obeyed them, con- might be more confident in rolling over Jack in the future

Step 5: Seek additional assistance, as appropriate – previous cases, peers, reliance on personal experience, inner reflection

Some of us have met “Jack” at Mountaintop and know that he is a nice person, and think that he would want the children to receive gifts.

Personall experience with day care or nanny-ing kids get over stuff pretty quickly but in the short term irritating younger children can make them incredibly hard to work with.

Step 6: Select the best course of action – that solves the problem, saves face and has the best short- term and long-term implications for your relationship and venture. Explain reasoning and discuss your solution vis-a-vis other approaches discussed in class.

Solution 1: it won’t harm Jack’s relationship with the center like solution 2 would. The kids will like Jack and be willing to work with him over the next 5 months and the other children who did receive gifts will be indifferent. He needs to have good relations with both the center and the kids and this solution makes that possible. Solutions 2 and 3 each only saved face for Jack in the eyes of the kids or the center but not both. However, in this scenario the kids wouldn’t save face in front of the other kids while this was part of the problem kids should quickly get over this and still treat each other well, it is more important that the kids don’t resent Jack. Though Jack risks annoying the center or causing further complications if he is careful he won’t do this and additionally, he won’t continue to feel guilty which is how he would feel if he did nothing.

Step 7: List the sequence of actions you will take to implement your solution. 

  1. Jack will buy the gifts
  2. The gifts cannot be of greater value than the gifts the other children revised or this would cause further problems
  3. Jack will give the children gift without the center being involved or seeing
  4. Jack will explain to the children he was not responsible for them not getting gifts in the first place
  5. Jack will tell the children that the center also paid for the kids gifts and jack was giving them out regardless of whether or not this is true.

This scenario allows for the center and Jack to save face. The kids will feel less slighted by both Jack and the shelter and improve their professional relationships. Jack will have to buy the gifts with his own money which is a con considering economics but knowing Jack he is in a position where that won’t be a huge problem for him. The gifts also should not be expensive or worth anything, they are just symbolic. If the gifts were nicer and useful this would make the other children jealous and set the wrong precedent for Jack and his professional relationship with the children. Here the 4 children will be less upset with j=Jack and additionally not blame the center. The center won’t know Jack intervened as it will now be a non-issue if Jack is laid back and casual while tactful about his approach to the situation. This solution won’t impact the funders of jacks venture or the funders of the origonal gifts. Jack and the kids will be impacted and hopefully if all goes to plan the center will not be.

CINQ Blog #2

Case Study 1 – Dangerous Water Pathogens in Lesotho 

Step one: 

Facts of the case 

  • Goal is to test water for disease causing pathogens in Lesotho, Africa. 
  • Specific pathogen only found in this one place – no where else to do it
  • Communities only contribution is leading to water source
  • 11  researchers, 10 days


Step two and three: 

Stakeholders and Motivations 

  1. You and research team- 11 people. Motivations: To benefit from publication, professional clout, to further science 
  2. The community members. Motivations: May be harmed by bacteria, may benefit from the results of this research in the future
  3. The community members who help you. Motivations: reward of some kind, possible employment opportunities, social rise from working with foreigners 
  4. Anyone who reads the report. Motivations: Learn, profit of implementing a solution
  5. The University. Motivations: Make connections in other countries, further science, gain clout in academia from publications. 
  6.   Government of Lesotho. Motivations: possibly gain clean water, help their citizens


 Step Four 

Ethical Question: Should people be compensated for their time and resources? Is it ethical to conduct this study from a human standpoint? Is it ethical at all?

Is this research ethical at all? Yes, this research is ethical. From our class discussion no arguments were made for the research being unethical. The most damage it might do it lead people to worry over their water sources more than previously. Additionally, from a human standpoint this study is ethical.

The results of the study have the potential to help those involved or at the very least spread more knowledge about the pathogen in the water source. If the communities resources are depleted from the work being doing yes they should be compensated but that is not a foreseen effect of the study. As to should people be paid, we will get into that in further steps…

Alternative solutions

1) Give conclusions and results for free for the community members and relevant government departments, insure understanding

2)      Don’t pay them, faith based 

3)      Reimburse them for gas or only resources you use, no tip

4)     Get approval from the water ministry 

5) Pay everyone you encounter a tip 

6) Incentivize people to help with a low cost good like coke but not monetary payment 

Or any combination of above options.


Step Five : 

Previous cases and personal experience 

Past case from the Ebola team. Their research  did not pay anyone except for reimbursements. They also made sure anyone involved knew that. They introduced themselves and explained fully what they needed before asking for assistance. In this way they weren’t letting people agree to something thinking they might be paid. 

Personal experience: Paying people tends to get you the most reliable and useful assistance, however, when traveling you shouldn’t be expected to tip everyone you encounter just because you come from a wealthier country.


Step six: 

Best Course of Action 

My team decided that the best course of action is to go through all the proper channels but not pay any community members for their help with directions.

We would get a letter from the Ministry of Water Resources and come prepared with maps and areal photos of the place. However, we don’t feel that paying community members for this work is the best course of action.

Offering to pay for knowledge that everyone has and some might give for free puts people who need or want the money in a situation where they need to be the first to please you and disadvantages those you aren’t aware of the opportunity. In a very poor area this might cause resentment among citizens and also put you and your team in an awkward place.

The results of any study should be explained to all relevant parties in Lesotho and this will be free.


Step seven: 

Implications of our Best Course of Action 

The worst case scenario is that nobody is willing to help us. In that case we have listed other possible scenarios that include offering a good in return or tipping.

Best case, the research can be pulled off without wasting resources and keeping strong connections with the community.

The results of the study will be made free to the community and the government so they will be informed about their water sources. The information is also published so there is the possibility that a solution to the problem can be found and implemented.

CINQ 388 Blog Post #1

Blog Post Number 1, 8/27/19

  • What are the top 3 things I learned during my GSIF trip this summer?
    • Most importantly, all the possible ingredients for substrate
      • Learned by going to the markets
      • It matters for cost of bags and successful mushrooms
      • We now have to test all these new ingredients
    • Second, I got a greater understanding for the weather in Sierra Leone and factors that will change by season
      • I learned this by talking to Jawara and others about the dry season and experiencing the wet season
      •  This matters because it will impact the structures that we decide to grow and the durability of materials that we will need to be testing and eventually using
      • In light of this we need to let the structure we currently built survive and see how long it takes to break, we also need to find alternatives
    • Lastly, I learned that the tap water is not safe to drink
      • I learned this by bringing a water drinking test that I purchased
      • This matters because some fungus leach heavy metals out of waters
      • I will make sure that nobody can be harmed by eating our mushrooms, we need to get grant money to test them, we can also look into using rain water instead of tap water or water from harmful pipes.
  • How did the GSIF trip facilitate my professional development?
    • Taught me how to be a leader
      • Sierra Leone taught me how to take responsibility that I knew I was qualified to take and take charge. I needed to be more confident and more vocal as well as stricter in what I knew was required
      • I learned this because there was no way around it. If I didn’t take charge things wouldn’t get done. It was the way it had to be done whether or not I was seen as an authority figure I had to act like one
      • This matters because it will be applicable to any job that I take
    • Changed my world view. I now believe that I have a better understanding about how the world works and what is really required to make an impact.
      • I learned this by experiencing Sierra Leone
      • This matters because I have arranged my professional and personal life goals around experiencing the world and creating sustainable impact
      • In light of this I am considering other projects and programs I can be a part of
    • This trip taught me the importance of networking which before I thought was fluff and bs
      • I learned this through interacting with Jawara’s boss on accident and afterwards realizing the impact that conversation can have on our employee.
      • The success of our project will rely on the positive connections we make in country and also in the US.
      • Through this myself and my team should always be prepared and practiced before going into situations. Our elevator pitch should be spot on.
  • How did the GSIF trip help me grow personally?
    • Seeing the disparity in wealth up close and personal was really hard and makes a person face the reality of living on earth.
      • I learned this through experiencing Sierra Leone and her people and culture
      • This changed me personally which is why it matters to me? To be more specific the larger the world view you experience the more people you can relate to.
      • In light of this I believe I have more respect and understanding of the world I live in.
    • Makes everybody grow up a little to have that much responsibility
      • I honestly feel as though I have aged and entire year in this trip. I feel more mature and responsible
    • I was alone in a foreign country with people I barely knew and I kind of need friendship to survive so it was really helped me get out of my safe bubble of people I already know and am familiar with.
      • The friendships and professional relationships I made on this trip will stay with me forever.

8/21/19 Peace Salone


Mushroom Team Blog

Well today was our last day at World Hope. We made a little more grain spawn to ensure that Jawara has plenty to work with. We organized our supplies, and then there wasn’t much else left to do but buy some hardboiled eggs and corn for one last time and then say our goodbyes.

There isn’t a whole lot left to say in this blog post. I am sad to go. To Jawara, teaching and then in turn learning from you was the most valuable part of our experience here. While I am still nervous to leave, you have instilled so much confidence in us we feel amazing leaving the venture in your very capable hands.

This was a very successful mission for our team and while I am sure we will be back again we made progress in leaps and bounds.

We will be applying for funding this fall semester and working with Jawara to continuing research on mushroom production.

Thank you to World Hope, Jawara, Sheku, Bakar and the other GSIF students who helped us on this trip!

Peace Salone,

Belle Sullivan

8/19/19 Sierra Leone

This is Belle typing for Jawara bringing you today’s blog.

Hello this is Mohammad Saio Jawara just to extend my greeting to the entire staff of Mushroom Team and students of Lehigh University and the United States. I am so happy to work with the team and I believe that working with the students at Lehigh is a great opportunity for me. So I would like to congratulate the professor Khanjan and the entire student body who make it possible to be in Sierra Leone and help elevate the poverty and hunger in our country. Thank you very much.

Well, with the mushroom we started it in 2018 with a team from Lehigh who made some trials but it was very unfortunate we were unable to get mushroom growing out of the experiment. But, with the intervention of the professors we think that this might not be the end of it, we must try harder to make it work. In 2019 Khanjan brought another Lehigh student by the name of Belle and Marc who did some trials and with these trials I believe we’ll have success and we must see that this project becomes a viable project. I know with all the experiments we have done with the students we are on the right track. Maybe it will be fruitful for us very soon.

Thanks so much for contributing Jawara!

As we are winding down our trip here Marc and I have been reflecting on our propose and impact. While on the outside our project might look like a few college students running around reorganizing bags of mycelium every day we are focused and creating a lasting impact on the Sierra Leonian infrastructure and habits regarding agriculture. We aim to leave those we work with with a mindset focused on sustainability and feasibility.

The update is, we have opened one grow bag so far, it may have been opened too early (*cough* *cough* *Marc!!!* *cough* *cough*) and has dried out. We have several more bags nearing fruiting and one which has show the tell tale signs of bunching. Two of our 5 grain spawn attempts have been successful and one will be ready W e aim to open that right before we leave Makeni on Wednesday and will be hoping from a call from Jawara while we are in Freetown saying “We got it!”.

These past couple days we have been testing grain types trying both millet and red rice. We want to leave Jawara with several pounds of spawn to continue making bags although eventually Jawara will have to mast the spawn process as well.

8/17/19 Salone


Mushroom Team Blog

Today Marc and I got to sleep in which made us really productive for the first few hours of the day. We decided to research and try as many substrates as possible while we are here. Today was cassava day. We went to the market in search of yucca and cassava leaves. We did one trial with just the yucca and minimal cassava and then a second trial with a significant amount of cassava leaves. Both of these were put out to dry but unfortunately were not done before it was time to go to dinner.

We will check on their progress and cleanliness tomorrow when we go to work.

The finally, edits have been made to the “How to mushrooms” checklist made for Jawara. Unfortunately do to some technology hiccups we haven’t been able to print it out. We really need photos on the final version and so far we haven’t been able to load them onto the document.

8/16/19 Salone



Chris James Fereno, confirmation name Peter, is an awful writer, please see august 16, 2019.

The early morning sunshine hits the three cars, we scrambled to turn our breakfasts into portable sandwiches. It was the perfect day for a trip in the back of the World Hope pick up truck. Filled with bread and laughter we tumbled  out onto the rocky drive of the office. Greeted by Abadu and the puppy Lucky (who is still being held captive plz go visit our gofundme//freeLucky).

Marc and I traipse to the fields. Clouds moved over our heads both literally and metaphorically. Marc and I traded off swinging the hammer. Metaphorically sinking nails into our problems and frustrations and literally sinking nails into our new mesh sieve. Four inch nails disappeared one after the other. By the end of our project our hearts were light, Jawara was making fun of us, and we have a mobile rice drying station.

Like the lizards flying between the moss-covered trees the mushroom team leaped across the flea infested fields and escaped with only a few bites each except for Marc; he is covered. As we darted inside to escape the pending rain Marc went in search of … a cloth? The soapy water swishes around the bottom of our steel pressure cooker. Marc, ft. a cloth, cleans the vessel we are preparing for our life bringing grain spawn. The essence of our fungus, so white and pure, starts its life in this lifeless steaming hot steel drum. Am I waxing too poetic?

Like a baby walrus on the beach, I flop towards the safety of familiarity, the howl of my father, or the cool air in the conference room. Back in the safety of the conference room, free from ants and fleas (though not spiders a mouse or gnats), Marc and I plot our next innovation…. More to come tomorrow.

8/15/19 Salone


Mushroom Team Blog

Today started off with a hunt for a hammer. Marc, Jawara, and I decided to complete the interior and sides of the structure ourselves. We decided to go with fabric for the sides of the structure because despite its lack of durability it is the most breathable. So, with left over nails we measured and cut our fabric and nailed it into place. Marc also had to break the lock off the door because it had rusted so badly that even though I promise we had the key we couldn’t open it anyway. It was a good way to pound out any frustrations.

Photos of the structure will be uploaded when I get to Brussels and have wifi.

Tomorrow night we have a meeting with Khanjan about our EPA Proposal. We need a research question in order to start writing and we haven’t been able to find a direction to go in. There are so many avenues when working with fungus I don’t know what our main focus should be. We also need a brand name for our budding company. So far Khanjan has suggested “American Mushrooms” which is terrible. We are leaving most creative decisions to Jawara but he is mostly coming up with really long names that aren’t brandable. Maybe this is a job we out source.

8/14/19 Salone


Mushroom Team Blog

We started off today with heaps and heaps of thunder and rain. Since were working on a roof with sheets of metal we were a little worried. However, after and hour the thunder subsided and Sheku appeared and was ready to go, but man are we tired of the rain.

The roof went up well and the designs were well understood. Now we need siding and we can rehouse our mushroom grow bags and they should enjoy that more than their current living situation – a shelf in a bathroom.

The real goal of this mission is to leave Jawara to work to do. Which I think we will have done. It’s very daunting heading to a country for 19 days knowing a grow cycle is at bare minimum 17. I sincerely hope that after Marc and I are gone Jawara harvest some mushrooms for us.

If all else fails Marc and I have invaluable hands on experience working in Sierra Leone. The more we know about this beautiful country the more we can do to mold our project to their needs. Something I learned that was long long (not too long) ago Sierra Leone was colonized by the British but Salone is surrounded by francophone countries used for their agricultural resources. Salone was used for its diamond resources. This provided Marc and I with some valuable background information. Its not my place to commentate on the still prevalent damage colonizing did in Africa but the knowledge at least explains the trouble the past green house project is having and the dependence on rice.

In the future I hope our fungus based project expands to supplement education on other types of produce.


Sierra Leone 8/13/19


Mushroom Team Blog

Let’s go shopping!!

Today first Marc and I took Emanuel and Jawara to the market and got the materials we will need to repair the second section of our mushroom house. The original plan was for the first section of our mushroom house to be the fruiting room. However, usually the fruiting temperatures for our culture is 70 to 85 degrees and the first section was much too hot. The remedy to this is making the first section a drying or streaming room. The once drying room that is the second section will now be converted to our fruiting room. So now that this was decided on we needed to plan a layout that will allow for convection. Bakar, Emanuel, Marc, Jawara, and I drove to the part of the market where all the timber is found. We found that a corrugated metal roof allows for more circulation. Additionally, once we thought about it we can leave a large gap to the left side of the center of the roof which will be covered by metal from the right side. This unusual gap won’t allow rain in but it will allow air out. The rainy season really impacts all of our construction decision. Our concluded market trip resulted with 9 2 by 4 pieces of wood to rest our metal roof on, the metal roof, and many cases of four-inch nails. The real challenge will be finding a day sunny enough to construct.

After every batch of substrate we prepare we have been choosing with grain spawn to use.  The “special” culture we brought over is called pink oyster. This culture is supposedly more vivacious, doesn’t require refrigeration, and is better at out competing bacteria than other oyster strains. Unfortunately, everything we had heard about this strand appears to be false because it is nearly dead.  This now creates a shortage of spawn available to make grow bags, so we have to be careful about how much or each strain we use so we don’t kill the other two cultures we have brought with us. In time the grain spawn bags we have been creating will become healthy enough to start grow bags with second generation spawn. But healthy spawn takes time so for how Marc and I have to stop making so many grow bags. Our initial few days in Sierra Leone we made enough to hopefully leave Jawara with a few fruiting bags. Creating literature is our new goal. A list of all the steps to take to make grain spawn, substrate, and grow bags will be very helpful to Jawara once we leave. And regretfully we are leaving very soon. This disappointing fact is held off only by the look of our current grow bags which show white healthy mycelium colonizing the bags without any contamination. Yay!

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