In Effects of Web Interactivity: A Meta-Analysis, Yang argues that cognition, enjoyment, attitude, recall, and behavioral intention are all correlated to the level of interactivity with the web. It is noted that there have been studies related to each of these variables, however, no research has been done on the interconnectedness of all of them with varying levels of interactivity.
It is important to note the given definition of interactivity, which is: “technological attributes of mediated environments that enable reciprocal communication or information exchange, which afford interaction between communication technology and users, or between users through technology”. Using this definition, previous research shows that enjoyment, attitude, and behavioral intentions have a positive relationship with interactivity, however, cognition has more mixed results, so Yang’s experiment puts emphasis on this test case. After running over results from over 200 different papers through their random-effects model, Yang concludes that there is a positive relationship between web interactivity and the outcome variables mentioned. This conclusion is drawn due to the r-values, which measure the linear correlation between variables, being around .3. The only outlier is cognition, which has an r-value of .05 and still indicates a positive relationship but is too close to zero to group it with the other variables.
The findings made in this paper are in line with what is to be expected. As we include features on the web that allow for more interactivity, it makes sense that there would be a positive relationship between those features and basic human qualities. For example, this research is used all the time with textbooks and we know this because they’re being made to allow users to do activities within the textbook, thereby increasing interactivity and, in relation, enjoyment, attitude, and recall.