Tudor Text Discussion

Respond to the following sets of questions (each with a 6-8 sentence answer) below:

-Who were the authors of these texts? What kind of people were they (status, identity, etc.)? When were these texts written? What kind of texts are they (e.g. diary? pamphlet? law code? secondary scholarly source?)? What are each of these texts “doing” (What are these texts describing? What are these texts arguing? Why would the author write these texts?)?

-Attempt to describe each of these texts in terms of how we defined the key parts of the Reformation: In what ways are these texts advocating the Reformation? What does the Reformation mean for each author? How is the Reformation contrasted with what came before?

30 thoughts on “Tudor Text Discussion

  1. The authors of these texts were men who played a role in the advancement of the English Reformation. The first text, “The Confession of John Pykas of Colchester (March 7, 1527)” is the confession of John Pykas in front of the bishop’s court, the second text “An Act in Restraint of Appeals” was written by Thomas Cromwell and the last text is “Henry VII and Theology” a letter written by Archbishop Cranmar. All three sources are primary, the first text is an account of John Parks confession, the second a legislative decree asserting King Henry’s power and the last text is a letter. Pykas was calling out the problems that he saw with the way Catholicism was practiced, mainly confession and sainthood. Cromwell was the Chief Minister to Henry VII and was helping him get his marriage annulled. Lastly the letter provides insight into Henry’s reformation of the church in England.

    Pykas his entire religious life had been a protestant and in his confession he argued to the court all the flaws he saw in the Church. he argued against confession saying a man should show his sins “Privately to God.” Pykas also spoke against praying to saints since they cannot hear them and are nearly the servants of God. Cromwell while on the orders of his King was enabling him to annul his marriage was also challenging the pope saying England had sovereignty over its own religion. England would not be told what to do by someone other than the king “governed by one supreme head and king.” Lastly the third text shows King Henry’s approval of a treatise written to him by a German Protestant named Wolfgang Capito. For the first text and third the idea of reformation seems to have a genuine religious backing where the men have real problems with Catholicism. However, Cromwell’s text seems to be more politically motivated as he became incredibly powerful after the decree was put into law.

  2. The three texts I will be referencing in this analysis are The Confession of John Pykas of Colchester (Text One), The Act in Restraint of Appeals (Text Two), and Henry VIII and Theology (text three). To begin it should be understood that between these three texts there is a time span of ten years, 1527-1537. This time period can be referenced within the beginning portion of the English Reformation. The first text, The Confession of John Pykas of Colchester, is dated 1527 and is a copy of an account of John Pykas confessions to his protestant like beliefs and actions. The account states that he “taught, rehearsed, and affirmed… against the sacrament of baptism,” an idea that will eventually align with the church of England. Additionally, the text goes on to describe an emphasis of preaching which is a key difference between the English church separated from Rome and before the separation occurred. The second text, The Act in Restraint of Appeals, is dated 1533 and is clearly a legal document, however the author is unknown. This document essentially breaks down the basic principles of the reformation; the king becoming the head of the church, the separation from Rome, and the King’s ability to have absolute jurisdiction over legal and spiritual matters within his realm. The last text, Henry VIII and Theology is a letter written by Archbishop Cramer to Wolfgang Capito and the date is predicted to be the year 1537. The letter discusses the way in which King Henry VIII reviewed written works regarding the new English Church and his religious views for the kingdom, specifically the piece written by Capito himself. Each on of these three articles speaks of the reformation in an agreeable tone. That the views, ideas and practices that came about when England separate from Rome were just and in due time. None of these texts outwardly speak out against the reformation, however the first one does reveal that during that time the beliefs and practices that were soon to become the norm were wrong. For all extensive purposes, these male authors outlined the basic principles of England’s reformation.

    Each of these texts some up several key components of the reformation, providing for us clear textual evidence to claims discussed in class. To start the Pykas confession very clearly illustrated key components of the Protestant faith that was soon to claim the English realm. From the words, “against the sacrament of Baptism,” to the clear description of the importance and prominence of preaching, while only praying to god. Even though this piece is advocating for the future practices of the church of England the author here is perceiving Pykas’ actions as negative and unlawful due to his action contrasting with Rome. The second piece outlines different laws and standards of the reformation. From the king being the supreme ruler of the church to his right of final say in all judicial matters, and the deceleration against Rome and those who take any actions to align themselves or gather second opinions from Rome or rulers aligned with Rome. Here the author see the reformation as laws to be enacted and adhered to, no emotion is relevant within this piece providing clear lines to the differences of societal laws before the reformation. In the last piece, the letter from Archbishop Cramer to Wolfgang Capito information is detailed as to Henry VIII’s way of gathering and interpretation written works related to his newly organized Church of England. It is clear within the piece the King’s power behind the reformation and how he was deciding what aligned with the concepts he wanted to practice and promote to his people. The author here has a friendly tone with the recipient and describes the king’s action, as to remove himself from the situation while still sympathizing with his friend. Overall these articles each in different ways are supporting the reformation and outlining for us the difference between before and after the reformation.

  3. The writers of these documents are largely critics of the church, or, as the church would put it, “Heretics”. Each of these texts are seemingly critical of the church, with Pykas heavily critical of the Churches treatment of Lollards, The second text titled based off its criticism of church appeals, and Lastly, anger at Henry VIII for making “decisions” on the theology of the Anglican Church by just passing important decisions on top his inferiors. Whereas these texts all seemed directed at one person or idea, for example, Pykas is directed at the entire Church system whereas Henry Crammer seemed to direct it at Henry VIII himself, they were all written for massive public consumption. This is similar to the way that Luther’s 95 Theses were written with the church as his main audience, but when it spreads it begins to create new ideas throughout all of Europe. All of these texts seem to fit in to mostly a primary source or diary entry, outside of the Henry Crammer piece they were all opinions from the time about the time they were written in. The authors wrote these to delegitimize the aspect for which they were writing. Whether it be the persecution of Lollards or the building blocks which the Anglican Church was based on, these texts all share a critical view on the subject for which they were writing.

    All of these texts meet different stages of the reformation, going from 5 years before the reformation, to during the reformation, and then to three decades following the reformation. Firstly, Pykas was the one to criticize the treatment of Lollards preceding the reformation. This meant significant amounts for the author, because it was his confession to the church itself of Lollardy. As a Lollard, the reformation meant significant amounts to him and you can tell from his confession, as he knows that the treatment of Lollards was horrible, and there was no chance of the survival of anyone like-minded had this continued. Then, we have a criticism of the Catholic Church written in 1533, the heart of the Anglican revolution. This was when reformation sentiment was picking up in England, once Henry himself turned against the Catholic Church, it was only a matter of time before the rest of England was on his side. Lastly, we have a piece written around 3 decades following the reformation. This was a look at what the reformation really meant, and at the time how it was a political ploy which had very little investment from the figureheads of the reformation, yet still led to significant effects on the history of the world.

  4. The authors of these texts, “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester (text one), “the Act in Restraint of Appeals” (text two), and “Henry VIII and Theology” (text three) were all engaged in the diesire to debate and reform religion. Text one was about John Pykas, a man who had read an english translation of the bible and thus found many inconsistencies with which the church relays and practices. He was described as a “latter-day lollard.” The second text was written by the English government as an act, informing the people on the ways their religion would be altered now that the monarch was the head of the English church rather than the pope, especially referencing appeals. The third text was written by an archbishop after the acts of supremacy, thus a man very knowledgeable about the changes in the church theology and a proponent. All of these texts were written during the reign of Henry VIII, a time when England was a second-rate power on the international stage and clamourings of the Protestant Reformation had already begun in Germany with Martin Luther. Text one is a description of the beliefs and actions made by John Pykas. This text goes on to prove how despite the Lollard movement being eventually suppressed by the English crown, its ideas still lived on. Pykus has a copy of the New Testament in English as well as a book of Paul’s Epistles. The text goes on to explain how after reading the bible for himself Pykus become a proponent for church reform, wanting to do away with certain sacraments, prayers to saints, and indulgences as the church has no biblical justification for their existence. Text two is an official act passed by the English government in regards to religious appeals. Its significance is in the fact that now appeals cannot be taken to Rome and the highest form of judgement is that of the king himself. It was these laws that made one of Queen Catherine of Aragon’s strongest arguments against her divroce to the king, the fact that she had a right to take her trial to Rome, null and void. The third text is a letter written from an archbishop closer to the king to a religious theologian, Wolfgang Capito. The archbishop wrote to inform Capito of how the king digests new religious treatises and thought and how he gives his opinion. The archbishop wrote how the king applauded much of the reformers ideas however his ideas about mass were intolerable, suggesting that while the king did in fact want to reform the Catholic religion he by no means wanted these reforms to leave the faith unrecognizable.

    The three texts describe the key parts of the reformation in sequence it went through, the initial ideas and grievances that brought it about, the legal process through which it was cemented in England forever, and the effect on the English government and the church. The first text harks back to Lollard days, an early start to the Reformation in England that was eventually suppressed. Pykus does his best to spread the ideas of what the bible says Christianity should be and not what the church has turned it into. The first text represents al the grumblings of scholars and unhappy religious authorities beginning to make noise about changes that need to take place with the church to reduce the greed and corruption to be closer aligned with the word of god. The second text exemplifies the legal process. For as soon as Henry VIII realized he would not be granted his divorce he began to go through official, legal channels to attain it through becoming head of the church. Henry VIII asked Parliament to make a list of grievances about the church and subsequently used their fear of war due to an unstable line to pass through acts, like the appeal act, that forever changed and united secular and temporal rule in England. Finally the third text displays the effects of the legal stage of the reformation in England. Now in England, where once Henry defended all the positions of the Catholic Church so openly and fiercely he was named Defender of the Faith by the pope, he now entertain and offered his options on new ways of religious thinking. Henry VIII agreed with some opinions, showing how he intended to diverge from the Catholic church, but he also vehemently disapproved of other thoughts revealing his aim to keep the Church of England fairly similar in practice to that of the Catholic Church.

  5. The authors of these texts included: John Pykas, Thomas Cromwell, and Archbishop Cranmar, and all of these men were proponents of the Reformation. Yet in the eyes of the Church, these them were heretics that were ruining society with they progressive ways of thinking. These texts were written from in a short span of only ten years, during which there was turmoil between the reformers such as these men, and the Church was intense. It was a politically heated time, one where people were starting to challenge the Church’s teachings and authority. “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester”, a primary source published in 1527, depicts the confessions’ of John Pykas. In which he went against many of the Churches’ instructions publicly before the Bishop’s court in London. Pyka’s mother was actually a major influence in his beliefs, for she was the one who explicitly told him not to believe in the sacraments of the Church. John then went on to preach to the public not to believe in the church either. It was John Pykas’ understanding that the beloved sacraments of the breaking of the bread were nothing more than bread and wine, not the body and blood of Christ. Also, that people should be praying to god only and not other saints. These ideas were radical for the time, and greatly offended the Church, but Pykas did not let the power of the Church stop him from preaching what he believed. Writing’s like these were meant to spread the word, and get other’s second-guessing the teachings of the Church as well.

    The next publication was in 1533 is another primary source, “An Act of Restraint of Appeals”, in which Thomas Cromwell proposed his own ideas about the Reformation. For many years, the King and the head of the Church had battled for control. Each wanted to have the final say and complete sovereignty over the other, but it had never been officially decided who had the right to be above the other. Cromwell’s work supported the rights of King Henry VIII, specifically about his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in which he wanted to get annulled, but the Pope refused. Cromwell coming out publicly in favor of the King was meant to persuade the public to join the fight and rally behind the King instead of the Pope. The “Act of Restraint of Appeals” stated that it was forbade all foreign appeals, meaning the Pope, in all spiritual, testamentary, and revenue cases. Once and for all deciding that the king was above the Pope.

    The last work was assigned the date of 1537, “Henry VIII and Theology”, by Cranmer. In this letter Cranmer is talking to Wolfgang Capito about the work he submitted to King, Henry VIII, which Cranmer had hand delivered. Cramner goes on to say that the king approved of many things he wrote in the new religious book, but some he did not. Despite the fact that the king did not approve of all Capito’s ideas for the Church, Cramner goes on to praise him for his work and all that he is doing for the reformation.
    All of these publications have in common that they are speaking out against the current Church in desire for change. These men were on the forefront of the battle against the Church, because speaking out during this time was greatly forbidden by the Roman Empire. Yet, they bravely did so anyways and desired to spread their own ideologies and gain support for the Reformation.

  6. The text “Confession of John Pykas of Colcheser” is a legal document from a bishop’s court in which John Pykas confesses to being a Lollard, a heretic in the eyes of the pre-Lutheran reformation English church. The document of the confession dates from March 7th, 1524 and seems to break down the evidence presented by John Pykas that affirms is role and beliefs as a Lollard. John Pykas seems to be a layperson in status and is being held on trial before a bishop’s court of England. John Pykas and the Lollard beliefs seem to align with many of the Protestant beliefs that are soon to come during the reformation. Such as the denial of the eucharist and baptism as legitimate forms of sacrament. The Reformation would allow John Pykas to follow his beliefs without condemnation and would nullify the need for this document as Pykas would have nothing to wrongdoing to confess.

    The second text is a primary source prepared by the court of Henry VIII that establishes the new rules that grant dominion to the new Church of England. The primary document dates to 1533 and essentially is defining the new role of the Church of England and Henry VIII’s new role as also the head of the Church. The document ends the power that the Papal Church of Rome had over England and places the King of England as the new religious leader over all English realms. This document is also key as it allows Henry VIII to annul his marriage which he needs to do in order to continue to attempt to secure a legitimate heir to his throne. This text focuses mostly on the political ramifications of the Protestant Reformation and how it allowed for the break between the Papal Church of Rome and the Church of England.

    The third document is another primary source written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and assumed to be written in 1537. This document is a letter written by Cranmer to his friend Wolfgang Capito who, according to the document, had his own treatise on religious matters delivered to Henry VIII by Cranmer. In this text Cranmer describes the process of how Henry VIII reviews religious doctrine by having it read by opposing biases in his court then making his decisions based on the arguments presented before him. The Reformation is a time of positive change for the author as he is well involved in the separation from the Papacy of Rome. This document is more revealing of Henry VIII as a ruler than the effects of the Reformation on England.

  7. The authors of these texts were John Pykas, King Henry VIII and advisors, and Archbishop Cranmer respectively. John Pykas was a protestant religious man who was a baker and accused of being a Lollard. King Henry and his advisors essentially ruled over the kingdom. Thomas Cranmer was the leader of the English Reformation. All texts read were primary sources. The confession of John Pykas was a brief account of his religious life as a protestant. The document argues against the Catholic church and how its believers did not do enough for God and were too supportive of church leadership rather than God himself. An act in restraint of appeals was a legal document issued to the kingdom regarding the treatment of matrimony and divorce cases in England. The purpose of this document was to demand that matrimony and divorce cases could be handled by England without a need for a trial in Rome out of self-interest to completely control and support the King’s demands. Henry VIII and Theology was a letter written by Archbishop Cranmer to Wolfgang Capito about his ideas regarding the Reformation. The purpose of the letter was to illustrate the support as well as disdain for certain ideas from Capito in relation to the King’s personal beliefs. John Pykas wrote his confession because of his disdain of the catholic church and the organization that ultimately supported it. King Henry VIII and his advisors wrote this legal act because of Henry VIII’s self-interests to remarry and birth a son to succeed him. The letter from Cranmer to Capito was to illustrate the King’s interests and support of those providing information to help reshape and construct a new church.

    The texts are advocating the Reformation by individually identifying particular problems that exist and present them as singular issues. Together these issues add up to the Reformation itself. John Pykas does this by describing specific issues within his confession where he views the Catholic church and its obsession with the earth rather than God. As a Lollard, the Reformation is substantial to John Pykas as his protestant foundations illustrate many problems regarding the Catholic Church. An act in restraint of appeals creates some of the main points as to why the Reformation occurred. The treatment of matrimony and divorce trials and the role that the King plays in defining the governmental structure is extremely evident within this legal act. Not only does the act define and establish the great authority of the King, but it also places him above the Pope. Referencing other Kings who issued great acts that applied to all of the lands is another way in which the king through his legal capabilities creates the intent monumental change during his years to reaffirm his power. The letter from Cranmer to Capito illustrates the effects of the Reformation in regards to the consideration of external opinions and by which these third parties are capable of providing insight into governmental structure and practice. The dates of these texts are significant in the fact that they portray before, during, and post Reformation. Prior to the Reformation providing one’s opinions in the case of Pykas would result in being convicted as a Lollard, however, post legal action from King Henry VIII opinions from Capito were met with criticism but considered to be thoughtful and appreciated.

  8. The authors of these texts were all eager to convince others that it was time for the Church of England to change. While they were likely considered heretics at the time, the premise of their ideas would eventually reflect those of the Church. The first text, “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester,” is an account of John Pykas’ confession to the bishop’s court. He confessed to the court on March 7, 1527, where he described his views on the Church’s emphasis on praying to saints rather than God and his disbelief in the importance of the sacraments. The second text, “An act in restraint of appeals,” is a legal document proclaiming that the “realm of England is an Empire” and it is “governed by one supreme head and king”. It was written by Thomas Cromwell in 1533 in response to King Henry VIII’s wish to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. The third text, “Henry VIII and theology,” is a letter from Archbishop Cranmer to Wolfgang Capito. It was written in 1537, describing King Henry VIII’s process for reading submitted books, his overall agreement on the books themes, and description of his hesitance on parts of Capito’s opinion on masses.

    These texts display aspects of the reformation in several ways. Pykas was raised with Protestant beliefs, having been taught them by his mother from a young age. Exposed to a bible written in english, Pykas believed firmly that the Church placed too much emphasis on the Sacraments-specifically baptism and confession-and that parish members should be praying strictly to God. In the Reformation, the role of sacraments if significantly downplayed, which aligns perfectly with the ideas that Pykas preached. The second text, the Act of Appeals, outlines the law that King Henry VIII needed to put in place so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. This law is significant in that the King established himself as the leader of both the empire of England and the Church by denouncing England’s need to ask the pope to handle legal matters. The reformation was full of changes in the church and without the pope to oversee development, the changes were possible. In the third text, the way in which the King goes about reading books is described. His process seems fairly democratic by allowing two differently-opinionated parties to read and give their thoughts to him before he reads them himself. Perhaps his willingness to be open to many opinions in the books he reads reflects his eventual acceptance of the changes in the Church during the reformation.

  9. The Tudor Texts were written by powerful people in England during the time of the Reformation. Due to their individual religious and political views, all three of these men assisted the Reformation in England. In “An Act in Restraint of Appeals,” Thomas Cromwell, chief minister to Henry VIII, uses political means to advance a religious movement. By using Parliament Cromwell was able to legitimize Henry VIII’s divorce and marriage that the Catholic Church would not have allowed. In his confession, John Pykas, a Protestant in pre-Reformation England, delivers a legitimate critique of the church from a religious perspective. He aims to reform the Church by adhering more strictly to the scripture, where he thinks the Church has moved away from it. Lastly, Archbishop Cranmer’s letter to Wolfgang Capito provides insight into Henry VIII and how he dealt with reforming his church. These sources are at most 10 years apart and provide a look into all aspects of Reformation England.

    In “An Act in Restraint of Appeals,” Thomas Cromwell is able to use Parliament in a way that exploits the people at the time. A large issue in the Church was the issue of the clergy not living as pure a life as the laity expected them too. By using this sentiment Thomas Cromwell is able to get Parliament, the representatives of the people, to legalize the religious changes that Henry VIII had enacted. For John Pykas the Reformation is not about politics and he truly believes in the changes that he speaks about. Thomas Cromwell is working for Henry VIII to achieve his goals, but whether he agrees or disagrees does not matter. John Pykas believes that the Church must be reformed for the good of everyone’s salvation, while Cromwell is just trying to get his boss a divorce. Archbishop Cranmer fights for the Reformation for both Pykas’ reasons and Cromwell’s. He is a religious man and he believes that the Church must be reformed but he also is doing this for Henry VIII. The letter he writes is to inform a friend about doctrinal changes that Henry VIII is demanding the Church Of England make. While Cranmer agrees with the changes he also is motivated by politics.

  10. The texts I will be analyzing include; “The confession of John Pykas of Colchester” written by Pykas (primary source), “An act in restraint of appeals” written by Thomas Cromwell (Primary source), “Henry VII and theology” written by Archbishop Cranmer (Primary source)”. The first text is the confession of John Pykas in front of the Bishops court on March 7th, 1527. Pykas is confessing to protestant beliefs and the reading of the English New Testament. Johns beliefs spawned from his mother who told him not to believe in the church. This is a part of the reformation because he confesses to teaching against the forms of baptism. Pykas was considered a “Lollard”. A lollard is someone who talks non-sense or speaks out against the church. this proves that the reformation meant a lot to the author. The second text was a document outlining the rules during the reformation (1533). This text talks about how judges and people appointed by the King will govern and keep the people from “corruption and sinister affection”. This is because the king is now the head of the state. This document explains how everything is ruled under the Kings jurisdiction. The third text was written by Cranmer to Wolfgang Capito (1537). In this text Cranmer explains how he presented the King with Wolfgangs book. He states that the king was pleased with many things in the book, but some things the King could not stomach. He then proceeds to express approval toward Capito for his dedication to his cause.

    Article one includes key points of the reformation. The role of John Pykas as a Lollard is important to the time of the reformation. A lollard is someone who speaks for change in the church. This is key to the reformation because these people are trying to convince people that change is needed. Pykas denies the Baptism and the Eucharist. Lollards are known to practice nicodimitism. Nicodimitism means a secret life. This is important because they practice this behind the scenes. Pykas goes against Sacramentology which is the study of the sacraments. This is the early phase of the reformation. This explains the ideas that sparked reform. Article two explains how the reformation brings about a new way of rule. This document explains how the King is now in charge of the church. This is important because it allows King Henry VIII to divorce. This then leads to his attempt to produce a heir to the thrown. This document explains the new way of doing things under the reformation. This document explains the ground work of the reformation and why it is necessary. Article three explains how Capito and Cranmer speak out against the church. This document explains how King Henry VIII agrees and disagrees with some statements by Capito. This is positive for the reformation because King Henry is showing approval for some of these statements. These documents all express the need for reformation and what problems they have with the church.

  11. The first text “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester” written in 1527, details in the confession of John Pykas, and highlights the the grievances Pykas has committed against the Catholic church by spreading protestant ideas, heresy to church. This document was written by a supporter of the catholic church who was there while Pykas gave his confession. The second text “An Act in Restraint in Appeals” written by Thomas Cromwell in 1533 is a document detailing the king’s authority and power to handle situations in his kingdom spiritual or otherwise. The final document is “Henry VIII and theology” written by Archbishop Cranmer to Wolfgang Capito in 1537 which details how the king handled Capito’s letter that was delivered by Cranmer. This is a personal letter due to the fact that Cranmer writes specifically to Capito, by revealing how much he admires Capito and that he asked the king to reward Captio on his behalf. All three texts deal mainly with religion and theology, and all reaffirm catholic beliefs and show the disdain and condemning of heretics, protestant teachings.
    In the first text, the “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester” the reader can clearly tell that the author of the document supports the catholic beliefs as the author says that Pykas “fell into errors and heresies against the sacrament of the altar”. Pykas accuser also testifies to him saying that he taught the epistles and the gospels and not the way the church taught. This statement would be a huge claim against the church, Pykas through this statement is accusing the church of heresy by claiming that they are not teaching the bible. Pykas also dismisses the majority of the sacraments, he speaks out against confessions, and dismisses the saints by saying that “men should only pray to God”. This is a further insult to the church by dismissing many of their sacred practices which in return makes Pykas an even bigger heretic in the eyes of the church. The second text “An Act of Restraint of Appeals” is a decree to the people of the king’s land declaring that the king has ultimate dominion over all affairs. Even in instances of spiritual disputes the people still must answer to the king. As the king can punish those who preach against the catholic church can receive years in jail or a fine based on his command. While this decree does weaken the power of the church in the fact that the king is taking control over spiritual matters, he still conforms to the ideas of the church and the condemnation of the protestants. While this situation works for certain ideas of religion it creates problems that could come about later. If the king and church disagree on a religious view, who do the people follow? This could eventually lead to conflict and disrupt between the church and state. The last article “Henry VIII and theology” differs from the others greatly because of the personal tone in the letter. Cramer obviously has great respect for Capito which can be seen by when Cramer tells him “how much I esteem you”. Capito is obviously a person held in high regard because he has a personal relationship with an archbishop, who would have been a very powerful person, and the fact that the King looked over his personal work. While this points to the fact that Capito was a devout catholic, one can also deduce from the fact that the king cannot “stomach or approve” his ideas on mass that Capito had some ideas possibly somewhat similar to what a protestant might have on mass. One other fact that is interesting is the idea that the King gives letters over to advisors and have them read it for him, then he just comments on their points and ideas. This could point to the fact that the King may not have as many original ideas as people think, and that his advisors could be in fact influencing the law more than people would think.

  12. The texts “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester,” “the Act in Restraint of Appeals” and “Henry VIII and Theology” are all primary sources from various years before, during and after the Reformation in England. The first text “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester” was a confession in front of the bishop’s court in 1527 by John Pykas a confessed Lollard. In his confession he names several people including his own brother guilty of believing in the Lollards ideas. Pykas also criticizes the treatment of Lollards. The second text, “the Act of Restraint of Appeals” is a legal document written by Thomas Cromwell, chief minister to Henry VIII, in 1533 defining the powers Henry VIII has as King and head of the Church of England. In this document Cromwell negates the power of the Roman Papacy in England. Cromwell wrote this in order to establish the legality of matrimony and divorce that Henry VIII would need to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. The final text, “Henry VIII and Theology,” is a letter correspondence between Archbishop Cranmer and Wolfgang Capito estimated to be written 1537. In this letter, Archbishop Cranmer a leader of the English Reformation, enumerates the process Henry VIII takes when considering the merit of the literary works of the Reformation. Archbishop Cranmer informs Capito that Henry VIII appreciated some of the ideas in Capito’s book but disagreed with others.
    “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester” advocates for the Reformation by listing several grievances Lollards had with the Roman Catholic Church. It is clear this text was written before the English Reformation had happened because Reformation ideas are not accepted yet in England. Some of Pykas’ grievances revolved around the treatment of Lollards and the concept of transubstantiation. He also criticizes the praying to saints, claiming that “men should pray only to God” as well as the selling of indulgences. To Pykas the Reformation means fixing the Roman Catholic Church in order to fit what he believes was the true intention of scripture. This contrasted to the previous view of the church which was infallibility. “The Act in Restraint of Appeals” advocates for the Reformation by laying down the new laws of the English Reformation. The Act in Restraint of Appeals takes power away from the church in Rome and gives that power to the King of England. This greatly contrasts the previous chain of being and marks the end of the Gelasian Dyarchy in England. For this author, Thomas Cromwell, the Reformation means disengaging from the Roman Catholic Church and proclaiming Henry VIII head of the Church of England in order to have the power to annul the marriage between the king and Catherine. Finally, “Henry VIII and Theology” advocates for the Reformation by showing how policy in the Church of England was still being formed through a process of comparing both sides. The Reformation for Archbishop Cranmer is a political process involving Henry VIII and Reformation scholars. This is different from the first text because the Reformation is no longer punishable in England, the Reformation is law by the creation of the Church of England.

  13. The authors of these texts were critics of the church. John Pykas confesses to heresy before a Bishop’s court in the Pykas reading. The reading is a scholarly journal which cites a primary source in a person’s account of Pykas’ confession. The primary account is written to be a witness to Pykas’ confession, but could also be used to spread awareness of the potential ridiculousness that was the criteria for heresy at the time. The Supremacy reading is a law enacted by the English government which decreed that no religious appeals could be brought to Rome. This is the English Government arguing that they should have more independence from the Papacy, and is them taking more control over their people. The Cranmer reading is a letter from an Archbishop describing King Henry VIII and his views on theology. Specifically, it is written in regards to potential changes to the church as desired by King Henry VIII.

    All three texts advocate for the reformation, but in different ways. The Pykas reading advocates for the reformation by showing how much better the church can be at educating its parishioners. From a young age, Pykas has an english bible to study, and is not relying on priests to translate the latin for him. He confesses to having these and is convicted of heresy, showing the absurdity of the situation. A reformation would mean a better understanding of the faith to everyone for Pykas’ because people (like himself) would not be executed for wishing to read the scripture they study in the language they speak. The Supremacy reading advocates for the reformation by passing a law that prohibits faith related appeals from going to Rome, but instead stay within King Henry’s realm. This effectively declares him the leader of both the empire and church and freeing him from the decrees of Rome. This means a lot to King Henry’s power and how much greater its become. Finally, the Cranmer reading describes changes the King would like to see in the church, effectively advocating for a change or reformation. This could greatly effect this author seeing as he is an archbishop, and may not be exactly what he desires. This impending reformation is clearly very different that previous movements seen in the church as described by these authors.

  14. The people who wrote these texts were people who experienced the beginning of and the Reformation of the Church in England. John Pykas was a Lollard, Crommell was a legislator, and Crammer was an Archbishop, but they all give different perspectives and opinions into the Reformation. All of these texts are primary sources as each of them were written by people who witnessed or took part in the actual event that was talked about. The “Confession of John Pykas” is an account written by a witness talking about how John Pykas admitted to disagree with core beliefs of the Catholic Church such as confession, the Eucharist, and the belief in saints. The “Act in Restraint of Appeals” was a legislative decree explaining how the spiritual realm of England should be controlled by the King as England was a sovereign empire and that the Catholic Church had no dominion in the English Empire. “Henry VIII and Theology” is an interesting piece written by an Archbishop in England to a Protostant leader. In the letter he explains how King Henry VIII listened to the Protestant leaders letter and liked it besides his views on the mass. All three texts offer very intriguing snapshots, views, and opinions on the English Reformation.

    All three texts show key themes of the Reformation or even advocate for the reformation happening at the time in New England. The “Confession of John Pykas” didn’t do much for the advocation of the Reformation but it showed some key views that fueled the Reformation throughout its duration. The one view that he said that may have appealed to many Englanders was his view on confession. The writing says that he, “that it was sufficient for a man to show his sins privily to God,” this was probably a view that many Englanders saw as appealing for their spiritual lives. The “Act in Restraint of Appeals” advocates for the Reformation with almost a nationalistic fevor that shows that the Reformation may have carried a sense of English pride that they were they’re own empire that could not be told what to do by any other governing body. Finally, “Henry VII and Theology” gives a view at the relationship between the English Reformation and the rise of Protestantism as it shows a dialogue between Henry the VIII and a protestant leader and it shows that while the Reformation may have been influenced by Protestantism, it did not totally agree with it. These texts were all very helpful to see what the Reformation was truly about and how it affected England and its people as well.

  15. Confession of John Pykas of Colchester, written in 1527, which is also a primary source, is a legal document from the bishop’s court. In this document, Pykas, who was what was considered a Lollard at the time, openly criticized the persecution of Lollards by the church. Pykas was a protestant in England during his time who argued that people were too loyal to the leadership of the church than God himself. The Act in Restraint of Appeals, written in 1533, which is also a primary source, is an account of Thomas Cromwell’s opinions on the King Henry VIII divorce. He knows that the church and the king have been battling for power for years, but he said that the king should be allowed to divorce Catherine of Aragon if he chooses. With Cromwell’s support, people will rally behind the king rather than the pope, which ended up establishing the king over the pope on the hierarchy chain. Henry VIII and Theology, written in 1537, which is also a primary source, is a letter where Cranmer speaks to Wolfgang Capito on his work that he gave to King Henry VIII. Cranmer points out that the king doesn’t agree with all of his points, but Cranmer commends him for trying. All three of these authors had spoken out against the church during their times about change, which was not common during the time. They tried to make real change during their time for the people, and they definitely achieved their goal.

    Confession of John Pykas of Colchester is advocating for the reformation because it is about the lollard Pykas who advocates for changes inside of the church. He and other lollards support the reformation because they are attempting to make meaningful change just to do the right thing, not for profit or greed. The Act in Restraint of Appeals is advocating for the reformation by giving an explanation on how the new hierarchy between the king and pope will work. King Henry VIII is now allowed to divorce and create a bloodline for the crown, which gives him power over the church which is establishing change. Henry VIII and Theology advocates for the reformation because it shows that although King Henry doesn’t agree with every point Cranmer and Wolfgang Capito have, he is willing to make other changes. This gives hope for real change to come about. All of these documents show the need for change within and around the church in order to advance as a society.

  16. Within these three text the authors were all men who were considered heretics in the eyes of the Church during their time. They disagreed with most of what the church taught and stood for, thus they all took part in the development of the English Reformation. These three text are all forms of primary sources. In the first text, “The Confession of John Pykas of Colchester: March, 7,1527”, John Pykas is a Lollard who made a public confession to the bishop court of London; where he ultimately opposed much of what the Church was teaching and how people were practicing Catholicism. In the second text, “An Act of Restraint of Appeals: 1533” by Thomas Cromwell; he was a minster who supported the divorce between Henry VIII and Catherine of aragon. Therefore, he took a public act against the church and declared an appeal to make the King a higher authority than the pope. In the final text, “ Henry VIII and Theology: 1537”, by Cranmer; was a letter Cranmer wrote to Wolfgang Capito about some of his ideas for the Church and the praise he had for Henry VIII.

    In the first text John Pykas was taught at a young age by his mother not to believe in the ways of the Church but the ways of a protestant lifestyle. He carries his protestant beliefs into his adulthood and advocated them to the people around him. He had very different beliefs from the church. He did not believe in religious sacraments such as baptism. He believed that people were not supposed to praise saints; they were only supposed to praise their lords. These beliefs made the church view him as a heretic. In the second text, Cromwell wanted to take authoritative action to show the separation of powers between the church and the state. Cromwell supporting the annulment between Henry VIII and Catherine, was a way to address that separation and advocate for a change. He wanted to show the people that the king had a higher position than the pope, and that the popes refusal should not have an effect in the King’s personal affairs. In the last text, Capito is expressing is ideas for changes in the church and although King Henry VIII doesn’t agree with all of them, they come to a treatise about the reformation. In all of these text, each man took different approaches during their time to contribute to the reformation which they believed was essential to spark helpful change in the religious community.

  17. The “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester” is a primary source court document about John Pykas confessing to being a heretic in March 1527. Pykas was a church reformist who had been influenced to question the church by his mother. He bought a bible and began to find what he considered problems within the church’s organizational structure and practices. For example, he argued that it is unholy to pray to saints as they are merely servants of God and unable to hear prayers. He also argued against confessions to a priest, saying that one should show his sins “privately to God”. For his beliefs, Pykas was executed as a relapsed heretic in 1531.
    “The Act of Restraint of Appeals” is a primary source document written in 1533 by Thomas Cromwell regarding the power dimension between the church and the state. Cromwell, an official of Henry VIII’s government, sided with Henry the VIII on the issue of his annulment. He also condemned the general supremacy of the Church over the English Empire. Cromwell believed that the supreme figure should be the King, not the Church. His writing helped influence the English to break with the Catholic Church and consequently develop the English Church.
    The final text, “Henry VIII and theology”, is a primary source letter written in 1537 by Archbishop Cranmer to Wolfgang Capito about the work of Capito. Capito had written a book to the King with suggestions about how the English Church should function. According to Cranmer, the King received it well but disagreed with some of Capito’s views. Even though the King did not fully agree with Capito, he agreed to compensate Capito for his work. Throughout the entire letter, Cranmer is very congratulatory of Capito and thankful for the work that he has done in advancing the English Church. All three of the works are very similar in that the authors see the Catholic Church as needing reform and are willing to write against the Church to achieve their goals.

  18. The first of the three respective text is “The Confession of John Pykas of Colchester”(March 7, 1527) where John Pykas criticizes the practices of the Church to the bishop. The text itself is a primary text of an account in which John criticizes the churches treatment of lollards after he admits to being one. The second text is, “The Act in Restraint of Appeals”, written by Henry VIII and his advisors. The act in restraint of appeals is a legal document released by Henry VIII regarding how matrimonial and divorce cases would be handled in England without the need for a Roman trial. The document was written in 1533, which was right in the middle of the English reformation and can be traced to Henry’s personal beliefs and his need of a male heir. The third respective text, was a letter from Archbishop Crammer to Wolfgang Capito. The purpose of the letter was to illustraight the king’s intellectual process and to convey which parts of the book the king supported and which parts he disapproved of. The common moteiff among the text is indicated by all three being written in the heart of the english reformation. All three record some form of interaction with change or belief in changing some aspect of the church.

    Each of the three text refer to a different aspect of the reformation. When all three are combined you start to get a more holistic view of the reformation. The first text “The Confession of John Pykas of Colchester ” was all about John Pykas having a prodistant upbringing and criticizing the church for the treatment of lollards. In the text we know that John was introduced to the english New Testament by his mother, which explains his criticism of the emphasis put on the sacraments. A more overarching criticism is about how he was able to come to his own interpretation through his own analysis of scripture. Where John doesn’t believe that someone should be discriminated against in the church just because they are considered a lollard. This becomes a broader part of the reformation when we start to see more groups with their own individual interpretation of scripture. The Act in Restraint of Appeals points out one of the reasons for how and why the reformation spread to England. The appeal points out how Henry VIII took power from the papacy by declaring himself above the church through revising the rules around matrimony and divorce. This ties back into the constant historical power struggle between king and pope between who actually has the final authority. The letter from Archbishop Crammer to Wolfgang Capito shows how books and information shaped the reformation. Starting with the printing press and Luther’s 95 theses, the reformation would not have been possible without the printing press. The letter also depicts the king’s openness to new ideas, given by his process of hearing from both sides. The text references that the king is kean on some ideas but isn’t open to all ideas, evident by his reaction to changing mass.

  19. The authors of these texts were all people who pushed forward the ideas of the reformation, no matter what were their motives. “The confession of John Pykas of colchester” was written by John Pykas in 1527, a man who was accused of being a lollard and had publicly disagreed with many of the church’s decision. He wrote in this primary source, his conflicting ideas with the church and how he ended coming to these conclusions. It seems that one of the biggest factors of his decision was his mother who raised as a protestant all his life. John Pykes spoke out against the ideas of praying to saints. He believed that saints were just servants of god and praying to them would lead to nothing. He also believed that sacraments, such as breaking the bread, had no point it whatsoever. John Pykes ideals very clearly followed the guidelines of the reformation and help push its ideas forward. John Pykes only cares about people correctly understanding the bible and just wishes to share his views.

    “The act of restraint of appeals” written in 1533 is a legal document written by parliament with Thomas Cromwell. This was the first document of many that led of the transfer of religious power from the pope, to the king of England. Thomas Cromwell was King Henry the VIII’s right hand man and played a crucial role in the transfer of religious power. The act gave the king’s divorce to Catherine of Aragon on legal basis so he could be free to marry Anne Boleyn. Making this act written and approved by parliament only tries to fit the facade that this was what the people wanted to happen and not just King Henry VIII. This document plays a crucial role in the reformation has it is the start of England cutting itself from the church. The reformation for Thomas Cromwell acts as a better way for him and his king to hold a firmer grip on England. Releasing this document you can see the idea as England as an empire transforming.

    “Henry VIII and theology” was a letter written by archbishop Cranmer to Wolfgang Capito in the year of 1537. Archbishop Cranmer was able to see how Henry VIII handled to task of changing the head of their church to himself, specifically with written text and wrote about it in a letter to an expert of theology Wolfgang Capito. Cranmer seems to think that though Henry VIII does what to make some vital changes to the ways of the church with the transition, he is trying his best to keep it virtually the same. He has his court read his religious doctrines with people who have several different stances of the matter to get everyones opinions. It sounds like Archbishop Cranmer himself agrees with what Henry VIII is doing with succeeding from the church because he believes change is necessary. Cranmer himself manages to view one of the the most crucial men in the english reformation and he seem to back behind the ideas of Henry VIII, even though Henry may be succeeding just for marital reasons.

  20. The texts being analyzed include “Confession of John Pykas of Colcheser”, “The Act in Restraint of Appeals”, and “Henry VIII and Theology”. The authors of these texts, respectively, were John Pykas, King Henry VIII and his advisors, and Archbishop Cranmer. The first text exhibits John Pykas’s confession, in front of the Bishops Court on March 7, 1527, to having Protestant beliefs and reading a translated version of the New Testament in English, which was forbidden at the time. The confession is considered to be a primary source, as it is what John Pykas said before the Bishops Court. In his speech, John Pykas admitted that as a result of his mother’s continued beliefs and his own reading of the translated English Testament, he began to see the shortcomings of the Church. Additionally, Pykas spoke against many of the sacraments and believed that people should pray only to God, causing the Bishops court to view him as a “Lollard”. The second text describes the basis for the Reformation in England because King Henry VIII could not obtain an annulment for his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. The text describes the end of the influence of the church of Rome, and the King of England assuming the power over all English realms. This legal document is a primary source, and is dated to 1533. This legal document shows how the separation of England from the influence of the Church of Rome allowed for the Reformation to take root in England, as one being (the King), could now assume a place in political and religious matters in all realms. The third text describes King Henry VIII’s process for reading books submitted for his perusal, how he obtains two wildly different opinions on each, and how he gives his own opinion. In this case, the text also describes King Henry VIII’s opinion on Capito’s book, and his potential disagreement with Capito on the subject of masses. This text is a letter, which is considered to be a primary source, and lacks a date, although it is given an assigned year of 1537. In his letter, Archbishop Cranmer tells Wolfgang Capito that he respects and reveres him for his continued dedication to the Reformation effort. This letter provided interesting insight on King Henry’s methods for obtaining opinions on the varying views toward the Reformation and Reformation ideals at the time, as he sought the opinion of other individuals before providing his own.

    These texts are all advocating for the Reformation in many similar ways. All of the texts exhibit individuals or groups advocating for the Reformation through not adhering to the status quo. John Pykas was condemned as a heretic for admitting his disbelief in a multitude of sacraments, and those who identified as “lollards” during this time would agree with Pykas’s remarks. John Pykas’s beliefs show how the discussion of other religious views aside from Christianity was taboo and how he was an outsider in society. King Henry VIII and his advisors decree that one king can be responsible for the political and religious interests of a realm, rather than having to default to the Pope in Rome for religious guidance. Additionally, King Henry VIII’s advisor’s acceptance of the annulment showed that the people did not have to reject change and defer to tradition. Archbishop Cranmer’s letter showed the eventual acceptance of Reformist ideas, as he cites that although the King did not agree with Capito’s every idea, his continued effort to spread Reform ideals was appreciated. The progression in time between John Pykas, King Henry VIII and advisors, and Archbishop Cranmer shows the acceptance and treatment of varying religious beliefs pre-Reformation, during the Reformation, and post-Reformation.

  21. The first text is written by John Pykas, who read an English translated version of the Bible and saw multiple inconsistencies with the original texts and the English versions. It is a direct confession from Pykas. The church believed that teaching of the English version is a crime, as it was heretical to teach outside of the latin language. The second text is an official proclamation from parliament declaring that the king was the head of the church and not the pope. This document comes from Thomas Cromwell, and is a direct contradiction to Catholic teachings. It originated on the order of Henry VIII, as he wanted to be able to make church rulings without having to go through the proper channels in the church in Rome. The third set of documents are letters written from Archbishop crammer, who states that while Henry VIII does want to make some changes, he wants to keep the general organization of the church the same, as he merely wants control, not a completely different religion. This letter showed the fact that outwardly the church was anti reformist, but certain officials in the church actually understood where thee reformists were coming from. They were not entirely opposed to the ideals of the reformation. The reformation is truly less of a religious turnover, and more of a mass populace attempting to gain some control of their lives from a “corporation” that has more or less been in control of everything for a few hundred years. It was essentially a relatively peaceful revolution.

  22. The three texts “Confession of John Pykas”, “An Act in Restraint of Appeals”, and “King Henry VIII and Theology”. each written respectively John Pykas, Thomas Cornwell, and Archbishop Cranmar within a ten-year span starting with the “Confession of John Pykas” in 1527 followed by “An Act in Restraint of Appeals” in 1533 and lastly “King Henry VIII and Theology” in 1527. All three dealing in primary sources of some kind which the last being a direct letter sent by the Archbishop. The other two more detailed accounts written by the authors about their lives and their current issues. Each has their own dealing with the reformation the first is about John Pykas and his discrepancies with the way the catholic church is run and the things they do such as the sacraments mainly with confession and baptism and also the idea of a pilgrimage for sainthood. the second more than likely more politically motivated than religiously where he writes about defending England and their right to religious self-government. The letter was about the archbishop telling a german man the process by which the King looked over the text that he had sent him about the reformation.

    They all deal with the reformation in their own way whether for more personal reasons or not they all have a place in advocating for the reformation. The first text discusses a personal view on his own interpretation of the reformation and his own issues about the church as a whole. The second being written by a man who recently gained a fair amount of power being the king’s chief advisor spoke out against the catholic church in Rome for in favor of England’s religious self-government. The last was a letter showing inside knowledge about the king’s view on outside religious texts and beliefs mainly protestant beliefs as all three texts relate to. For each author, the reformation means something else for John Pykas it is about his own personal beliefs being fine to believe in, Thomas Cornwell writing this for both political reasons due to his position in relating to the King and the king’s beliefs about annulling his marriage. Lastly, Archbishop Cranmar sticking by his king as he is an English man thus helping his king along with his current tribulations about the reformation.

  23. The first document, “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester,” written on March 7, 1527, is an official description from a bishop’s court in London of the confession of John Pykas to his, at the time, heretical beliefs. Pykas explains how he obtained English copies of Paul’s Epistles and the New Testament, possessions that lower-class individuals rarely had around this time period to discourage new interpretations of the bible. Within this confession, Pykas expresses his denial of sacraments such as Baptism and Confession, disapproval of the sale of indulgences, and makes clear that the relationship between people and God should be direct and personal, rather than through saints. The bishop’s court is publishing this confession to frame Pykas’ views through a heretical lense in order to combat the Protestant Reformation going on at the time. The next document, “An Act in Restraint of Appeals,” written in 1533 by Thomas Cromwell, is an official English government document that establishes the English Empire and the independence of the English Church from the Holy Roman Empire. Cromwell gained high ranking within Henry VIII’s cabinet and wrote this Act so that Henry VIII can officially divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry a new queen, one that can hopefully provide him with a male heir to the Tudor throne. This document sets up different punishments for bringing appeals to the Holy Roman Empire, thus giving Henry VIII ultimate authority over religious matters within England. The third document, “Henry VIII and theology. Described by Cranmer,” approximately written in 1537, is a letter from Archbishop Cranmer to Wolfgang Capito. In this letter, Cranmer describes the methods that Henry VIII implements to make rulings concerning the English Church, and writes it to inform Capito about what the kings thinks about his book. The king will present the books to two different groups of opposite viewpoints, and have the pros and cons of the different books presented to him. Henry VIII will then make a ruling.

    The “Confession of John Pykas” shows the impact of the Protestant Reformation. The clear backlash against ideas such as the sale of indulgences and the sacraments, as well as the promotion of a more intimate relationship between the people and God, are all key tenants of what Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation expressed. However, Pykas’ being tried as a Lollard is a sign that the Protestant Reformation has not fully been accepted in England yet, as the Cathlic Church is still prevalent and battling new ideals at this time. “An Act in Restraint of Appeals” is a turning point for the Protestant Reformation in England. However, the document symbolizes more of a politically motivated move than a religiously motivated one. Henry VIII and Cromwell wanted a divorce in order to ensure a male Tudor heir, and this meant breaking off from the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg family. The letter from Cranmer to Capito describing Henry VIII’s new practices signals a break in the dictatorship-like leadership of the Pope. Henry’s synthesis of opposing viewpoints can represent a humanist-like and more flexible approach to religion rather than the singular approach of the Holy Roman Empire.

  24. In the three featured articles, the authors vary in status and profession but all described essential elements of the English Reformation, whether they realized it or not. The first text, titled “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester”, written in 1527, is a first-hand account of a confession of John Pykas, a deemed heretic. In this case, the author of the text was most likely a bishop representing the court he stood in. Described in the author’s account is Pykas’ many radical ideas, which are described as being inspired by his reading of the New Testament in English. The second article “the Act in Restraint of Appeals”, written in 1533, is also a primary source. However, instead of being an account of a court hearing, it is a legal declaration written by most likely someone in Henry VIII’s government. Because of this, the author is also unknown. Described in this declaration is the idea that the King of England, Henry VIII, would now be the solitary figure for deciding all things temporal and spiritual. In this text, the author suggests that England is rejecting what he calls “the See of Rome.” Finally, the third article “Henry VIII and Theology”, dated for 1537, is written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, and describes Henry VIII’s process for deciding doctrinal issues. This text is also a primary source, as it is a letter to Wolfgang Capito, an author for a text that Henry VIII has recently reviewed.

    When considering how each text reflects the ideas of the reformation, it is important to consider the perspectives of the different authors. In “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester”, the author is most likely a bishop, and is certainly against the ideas that he describes. Nevertheless, this text is a reflection of reformation ideas as it describes: the translation of the Latin Vulgate to English, the argument that the bread and wine do not physically represent Christ, arguments against the Seven Sacraments, the idea that Saints should not be worshiped, and the suggestion that indulgences have no effect on one’s spirituality. All of these ideas contrast what any church has advocated prior to the Reformation, and the author was most likely disgusted by the confession of John Pykas. The second text “the Act in Restraint of Appeals” is similarly a reflection of the Reformation as it describes the beginning of the creation of the English Church. The main idea described in the text is the superiority of the King to the Pope or Catholic Church. Although the English Church would maintain many of the elements that defined the Catholic Church, it remains one of the greatest examples of the adoption of Reformation ideas at the highest level. In this case, the author would have been privy to the Reformation, as it undermined the Catholic Church, the very thing England was attempting to distance itself from. Finally, in “Henry VIII and Theology”, Cranmer describes a similar idea shown in the previous text. While describing Henry VIII’s process for making any doctrinal decision, he makes no mention of any clerical figure. This is because under the English Church, Henry VIII has become the authority for any decision, spiritual or temporal.

  25. The authors of the three texts are John Pykas of Colchester, Thomas Cromwell, and Archbishop Cramner. It is unclear who John Pykas was, though he describes blasphemous attitudes throughout the text. Thomas Cromwell was a counselor and advisor to King Henry VIII. He is also mentioned in the letter from Archbishop Cramner. Archbishop Cramner was a leader of the Reformation under King Henry VIII, and advocated for the annulment of the King’s marriage. John Pykas seems to be a common man. Thomas Cromwell and Archbishop Cramner were both members of the elite class, and were close advisors to the king, granting them status and importance. The Confessions of John Pykas were written in 1527, Thomas Cromwell’s text was written in 1533, and Archbishop Cramner’s letter was written in 1537. The Confessions seem to be some sort of personal writing, maybe a diary. Thomas Cromwell’s is an official proclamation on behalf of the king, and Archbishop Cramner’s text is a letter. Each text describes a new attitude in relation to governance or religion that deviates from the norm. Pykas’ confession describes a rejection of religious beliefs (sacraments, praying to saints), Thomas Cromwell’s text details a new understanding of sovereign power (as well as the understanding of Gelasian Dyarchy), and the Archbishop’s letter describes the process of the King understanding new ideologies. Each text describes a rejection of norms or the acceptance of a new way of living. Each author wrote their respective texts to publicize their beliefs.

    John Pykas’ confessions advocate the Reformation because of his rejection of the sacraments. He also questions the legitimacy of indulgences, an idea much in line with Martin Luther’s 95 theses. He also questions the act of praying to saints, stating that saints “be just stocks and stones,” and that only God should be prayed to. Martin Luther shared this belief. Cromwell’s proclamation on behalf of the King advocates for all legal matters to be decided by the King, and not the Church. This is a core tenet of the Reformation as well. Archbishop Cramner’s letter reveals that the King was willing to hear other people’s theology and discuss it openly. The Reformation for Pykas means a departure from (to him) meaningless sacraments, as well as a departure from indulgences and praying to Saints. To Cromwell it means autonomy for the King, and a complete reduction of Church influence on legal matters. To be honest, I am still wondering about what the Reformation means to Cramner. I believe it means that he thinks the King has the capacity to understand and dissect theology and religion, and therefore there is less of a need for Church influence in England. The Reformation means a decrease in the overlapping of Church and State authorities. For Pykas, it also means a transition in the way that sacred texts are understood, as well as how sacraments and saints are acknowledged.

  26. The authors of these texts are all church or government officials, with high status and societal standing. The texts were also all written between 1527 and 1573, at the beginning of the Reformation. John Pykas, of the first text, confesses his beliefs which go against those of the established church. He is revealed to be a lollard, and the text serves as his confession. In the second text, which appears to be a declaration by King Henry VIII’s administration, establishes the king as the leader of the Church of England, and declares this new English church will replace the Roman Catholic Church previously in power in England. The text was written as a statement of intent, to publicize the plans surrounding the new church. The third text, which is a letter from one church leader to another, describes the process by which Henry VIII reviewed suggestions and ideas regarding reforming the church. This text was written to give perspective on Henry VIII’s review processes, and it shows he values the opinions of various people and parties.

    The first text, as John Pykas’ confession, is in clear support of change within the church. John Pykas outlines his beliefs as a lollard, including that the sacrament of the altar and baptism as practiced by Catholics are not correct according to the Bible. His beliefs would be considered heretic by the Church, but became key ideas separating the Protestant church from Catholicism. Pykas advocates for the Reformation because he feels it is supported by the Bible itself, and that the movement will bring people closer to God. The second text is an important point in the Reformation, as it outlines the establishment of the Church of England and its key differences from the Roman Catholic church. It is a concrete step towards separation from Roman Catholic rule, and the document claims that this will improve the lives of the English people, as the English Church will be free to exist “without the intermeddling of any exterior person or persons.” The persons referred to here are likely Roman Catholic officials. Another notable consequence of this document is that King Henry VIII can follow through with his divorce and subsequent remarriage, and attempt to produce a male heir to the throne. The third document also involves King Henry VIII, in outlining his process for receiving suggestions. It can be seen as advocating for the Reformation by portraying Henry VIII’s process as fair and diplomatic, thus giving validation to his views and the Reformation as a whole. It also shows a willingness by the leadership to accept and advocate for positive change in the country.

  27. The three authors of the texts from the English Reformation include; John Pykas, Thomas Cromwell, and Archbishop Cranmer. John Pykas is the author of “The Confession of John Pykas of Colchester” written in 1527. This text is a primary source, being an account of John Pykas confronting the court of the bishop. Pykas addressed many problems to the bishop court having to do with the Church, privacy of confession, and even stating that prayers should not be directed towards Saints.
    Thomas Cromwell wrote the legislative document “An Act in Restraint of Appeals” in 1533. Again, this is a primary source. Thomas Cromwell wrote this regarding the separation of power in church and the state. Cromwell was a part of Henry VIII’s government. Henrys annulment came to question and Cromwell sided with him. Cromwell believed that the major figure shouldn’t be the Church but the King instead and control the majority. With this, Cromwell helped pave the way for the English Church.
    Archbishop Cranmer in 1537 wrote, “Henry VIII and theology”. This too, is a primary source This letter was written to Wolfgang Capito about the suggestions and ideas of how to run the Church and how it should function. The King had mixed feeling of what Capito had to say however mostly positive and decided to give back and listen to some of what Capito had to say.
    All three article are very similar in the fact of showing how major changes need to be done to the church and state regarding the foundations, beliefs and the separation of power. These led to the reformation and the ideals of what needed to change.

  28. The authors of these three texts were people who lived during various points of the
    Reformation period. They statuses may vary but they are all people with some kind of authority, including “Henry VIII and Theology” being a letter written by Archbishop Cranmer. All three sources are primary sources that speak of the Reformation from different times and touch upon Henry VIII and the happenings at the times. The first text, “Confession of John Pykas of Colchester,” is a firsthand account of John Pykas’ confession to being a “heretic” by some unknow author, as Pykas was reading English versions of the Bible, going against the Church’s teachings, and spreading that information to others. The second text of “An Act in Restraint of Appeals” was written by Thomas Cromwell who served as Chief Minister to Henry VIII, and it’s a decree explaining the legislative changes to what acts are not allowed and the consequences of such acts pertaining to heresy and acts that can be taken as going against the king. The third text of “Henry VIII and Theology” is a letter written by Archbishop Cranmer to Wolfgang Capito who is an author in which King Henry VIII is reviewing the work of, and the letter explains how the King reviews works but getting summaries by two others of different minds who have read it first, and then forming an opinion based of those together.

    Each of the texts gives insight to the happenings of the Reformation at different times. The account of John Pykas’ confession is dated the earliest and shows of the rise of heretics and those who go against the teachings of the Church. Lollards become more frequent and those who want English translations of the Bible as well, in which causes the Church and the King to more actively root out the heretics, and the teachings of religion become more reinforced. The second text by Cromwell illustrates the involvement of the King together with the Church as legislative laws pertaining to religion are put in place. The third text by Cranmer also shows how the King is tied to the Church as the King is able to decide which texts go against the Church as well and not allow their publication. The Reformation means different things to the authors, and first to the author of the account of Pykas is the Reformation is bringing about a stricter time for religion as heretics are being arrested and tried more frequently during this period, then for Cromwell it means a time of secured authority as the power of the King is further cemented and his power displayed, and it means something similarly to Cranmer as the King and the Church are the twin powers of the State.

  29. These three different texts that I surveyed were from three separate authors, during three seperate years. “The Confession of John Pykas” is a manuscript of Pykas’ confession in front of the bishop in March of 1527. The text is written by Pykas himself and can be taken as a primary source since he was obviously there at the time of the event being mentioned. Next, I read over “An Act in Restraint of Appeals”, was written by Thomas Cromwell in the year 1533. Finally, Archbishop Cramer wrote a letter in 1537 titled, “Henry VIII and Theology”. John Pykas does not hold the highest social standard in England, as he is reveled to be a lollard through the primary source. “The Confession of John Pykas” recounts Pykas’ multiple grievances with the Church that he decided to personally bring to the bishop court. Some of Pykas’ specific grievances had to do with the way confessions were taken, it being against the religious law to read the Bible in English, among other things. Cromwell was the right hand man of King Henry VIII. Parliament and Cromwell got together to create this document which explained many of the recent changes to laws regarding religion and heresy. Cromwell and parliament knowingly were shifting the power from the pope to the king of England, and this document, as well as the laws it is explaining, could count as one of the first moves towards this power shift. Archbishop Cramer was, of course, an Archbishop of the Catholic Church the time of the document. Cramer pens a personal letter to Wolfgang Capito in hopes of detailing how the King received Wolfgang’s book. It was obviously important for Cramer, or even the Church as a whole, to keep relations with Capito due to the personal letter and personal attention his work received from the King.

    In the first text, “The Confession of John Pykas” is probably the most extreme example of someone protesting the Church and its ways. Pykas felt so passionate about the need for change in the Church that he decided it was necessary to air his grievances to the court of bishops, the very people who have a say in the protested laws. His courage comes from the Bible, as Pykas denounces several sacraments as going against the correct ways of the Bible. Pykas’ reformation was a return to the ways of the Bible, less corruption in the church, and more spiritually driven practices. Cromwell also calls for a reformation of the Church in his article. However, the tone of this document is much more authoritative rather than being interested in the spirituality of the Church. Cromwell, of course, advocates for all laws and major decisions be made by the King and not the pope. Essentially, this letter from Cromwell and parliament, in which King Henry VIII most likely had a say in, would explain all their reasoning for creating what would become the Church of England. Cramer’s letter details the political side of England’s separation from the Church. King Henry VIII is obviously interested in splitting off entirely from the rule of the pope and Church, and is exploring many different political options to have the smoothest, most effective reformation. Cramer tells Capito that the King enjoyed some of his ideas and did not like others. Going off what I had mentioned in the previous paragraph however, the English government clearly wishes to have a good relationship with Capito as Cramer goes on to praise him for his work. This is most likely because the King was acquiring the most acquisition plans and expert opinions as possible and if he liked any of Capitol’s ideas at all, it would not be smart to completely burn that bridge.

    In conclusion, all three of these articles undoubtedly fall on the side of wanting reformation within the Church. The first seemingly voices many of the opinions as to why the public may see reformation as the most effective way to respond to the issues they have with the Church and the pope. Next, Cromwell details the new reformation friendly laws. Finally, the most effective way to rule politically is explored by the King, who now has more power than ever thanks to him being the head of the Church of England.

  30. The first author is John Pykas, a critic of current Church practices. He is presumed to be a man of status, given his ability to orrate extensively. This particular texts is a primary account of his words spoken before his confession in front of bishop’s court, London, in 1527. The second text is a law written in 1533 that asserts King Henry VIII’s power over the matters of church. Although the author is unknown, it is presumed to have been written by powerful men, as they could write and were in a position to write laws. The final text is a letter written by Archbishop Cranmer to his friend, Wolfgang Capito. Cranmer was a religious leader of the church who wrote this in 1537. He is describing the Kings (mostly positive) reaction to a text given to him by the recipient of this letter. All three texts demonstrate reformation ideas and a desire to take power away from the Vatican in one way or another.

    In the first text, Pykas is very explicit to point out the various problems within the Church. His goal is a simple one, to get rid of these problems. In the second text, a new law is created that gives the King significantly more power over affairs within the church. Reformation in this sense means taking power away from Rome. The final text expresses the Kings approval of a text that was given to him. It explains that there are still many unanswered questions of how this new separation between catholics and everyone else will play out. All of these texts do an excellent job of illustrating the progression of the reformation. Something that began as 95 criticisms not two decades ago has turned into a movement with real changes in how English society functions. Finally, these texts also show a divergence between the motivations for reformation. The reformation begins with solely religious motivations, but the second text explains that the motivations may be more political in nature.

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