Intra-Protestant Text Discussion

Respond to the following sets of questions (each with a 8 sentence, minimum, answer) below:

-Who were the authors of these texts (make reasoned speculations)? What kind of people were they (status, identity, etc.)? When were these texts written? What kind of texts are they (e.g. diary? pamphlet? law code? secondary scholarly source?)? What are each of these texts “doing” (What are these texts describing? What are these texts arguing? Why would the author write these texts?)?

-How do these different texts define Reformation doctrines and where is there a conflict about meaning and application? Specifically, where are there similarities and/or divergences over predestination, sacraments, role of magistrate, and church government?

24 thoughts on “Intra-Protestant Text Discussion

  1. Each text read as a basis for the Intra-protestant text discussion is in some form a primary source. Each text discusses varying principles associated with the English Church during the time of Elizabeth I’s reign. These text also outline the structures and operations of the church, the church government, the civil government, and the commonwealth and how they are all connected through God and his commands. The first text regarding The Admonition Controversy is Archbishop John Whitgift’s analysis and rebuttal to puritan Thomas Cartwright’s ideas on several concepts associated with the English Church is a primary declaration of the difference in viewpoints of these two sectors of English Church beliefs. In this piece John Whitgift is responding the puritan beliefs and ideologies outlined by Thomas Cartwright and is essentially correcting them to be inline with that of the principles of the current English Church. The Second article, A Golden Chain was written by William Perkins, who was a Cambridge theologian and leader of the Puritan movement within the English Church during the second half of the 16th century. Within the primary religious code Perkins outlines a multitude of religious principles, including that of instructions for the operations of the Church and the behaviors of godly individuals. The Last text, The 39 Articles, is a religious law code, developed under Elizabeth I’s command and were amendments made to the 42 articles written by Thomas Cranmer under Henry VIII’s rule. These 39 articles became the doctrine for the Church of England outlining and establishing the actions, behaviors, and beliefs that the english clergy were to share and preach to the commonwealth during Elizabeths reign.
    Each of these texts defines reformations doctrines in multiple different ways, but can be boiled down to the fact that they are codes in which the allowable and acceptable actions and beliefs of both clergy and commonwealth are established. In order to compare each of these pieces specifically throughout the topics of predestinations, sacraments, magistrates, and church government it is best to start with the 39 articles because this is the doctrine set forth by the civil government for both church government, and the people. Within the 39 articles the topic of predestination is described as the “everlasting purpose of god” to elect godly persons. This view of predestination is similar to that outlined within The Golden Chain, however here Perkins declares a systematic application of predestination, stating that there are two parts, the first of which, “judgement of predestination,” consists of seven steps and the second being “use of predestination.” Perkins outline of steps for applying to predestination differs from the concept that it is god soul purpose to choose who is predestined which is stated in the 39 articles. Sacraments is another topic discussed both in the 39 articles and The Golden Chain, however this time both the religious law codes agree that the sacraments are gods graces that are badges/tokens given to and sealed upon christian men as a symbol of their faith. The Role of magistrates is a more complicated topic that can be seen either indirectly or directly within each of the three articles. Within the first text the role of magistrates is very apparent and the differences between the puritan and english church viewpoints are apparent. It is the puritan belief that the civil magistrates only adhere to god and the crown, however Whitgift refutes this saying that providing magistrates with the only supervisor of god removes authority from there senior and the structure of the church is no longer valid and the power of different positions is redistributed. All of the principles set forth in both the 39 articles and the golden chain doctrines are principles and concepts that magistrates would be forced to follow thus impacting their interactions with religion and the church. Lastly the issue of church government clearly debated within the first article outlines that the puritans believe that the church is subject to the crowns will thus limiting their beliefs to that of the crown, which is refuted by Whitgift saying that if the Church had more power then the crown would be subject to the will of the church unbalancing the stability of the realm. Because the 39 articles come from the crown it is clear that Whitgift side is supported by this law code and the lack of mention of the crown within A Golden Chain can be said to support Cartwright’s side of this disagreement. Even though these articles disagree in many places, together they outline the the differences between puritans and those loyal to the reformed English Church, leading to a depiction of the political and religious landscape of this time during the reformation and Elizabeths reign.

  2. The first text, “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift” was written by John Whitgift. This is a primary source as it is a series of articles Whitgift wrote. These texts were written in response to the issue of electing officials of the church, and how commoners cannot be trusted to vote since they are morally compromised. The second document, “A Golden Chain” continues the debate of election in the Church and how God intended to be worshipped. This document is also a primary source written by William Perkins a wealthy and influential Theologian at the time. Perkins also discusses reprobation, or the rejection of worship by God. Lastly the third document is the “39 Articles of the Church of England.” The document is a primary source article stating the Church of England’s stance in relation to Calvinism and the Catholic Church. The Church of England says it will avoid the errors of the other Churches because they will stick only to the word of God. The articles state that there are only two sacraments, baptism and communion.
    These different texts show the debate that was going on within England as pertaining to the direction the Church should take. Theologians in England wanted to break away from what they viewed as corrupt Catholic Church but just how far to break was the debate. As England developed its own Church and beliefs these issues cropped up. As seen in the first document, we see John Whitgift stating his opposition to allowing commoners to have a say in the election church ministers. One big debate within the Church is the sacraments. The 39 articles viewed the original four sacraments of the Catholic church as too many cut it to baptism and communion. One issue the Church dealt with was predestination and the idea that your fate was sealed before your life is even begun. God chooses those he will save and they live out their life in good faith that they have been chosen, and after they die salvation awaits. When it comes to the magistrates the 39 articles state a set of rules that they are forced to follow. While Puritans believed the only person the magistrates had to answer was God however according to Whitgift this is an unsettling idea. When it comes to church government the Puritans believe the church should be more powerful than the crown. Once again Whitgift refutes this idea and his ideas prevail as stated in the 39 articles.

  3. The first text to be analyzed, “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift” is a collection of responses and critiques written by John Whitgift to statements made by Thomas Cartwright. They discuss topics, such as, how church officials can be elected when there is so much corruption in the clergy and congregation that would be doing the electing, as well as, as the authority of religious leaders over that of the civil magistrates. This text showcases the growing division between the Protestants of England, with Archbishop Whitgift having to rebuttal the ideas of Puritans and other divergent sects, like those of Thomas Cartwright. The second text, “A golden chaine” authored by William Perkins in 1591, is William Perkins’ writings and belifs, as a Puritan thinker, on a variety of religious subject matters and outlines a number of key beliefs of the Puritan faith. He explains the ideas of the “Elect,” predestination, and denouncement of sacraments, both in literal and symbolic contexts, which are core beliefs of related to Puritans. The third and final work, “Section from the 39 Articles of the Church of England” appears to be a listing or codex of religious tenents, codified most likely by Parliament under Queen Elizabeth’s instruction. This may have been an attempt by the Queen to clearly state the beliefs held by the Church of England, to then be used to identify and hamper the propagation of divergent beliefs. With this document, Queen Elizabeth might have tried to foster a unity within England religiously for fear of more ideological upheavals. This document explores subjects like Free will, Original sin, the erring of the Catholic Church, and more.

    These texts focus on and describe mandates or beliefs of the Reformation doctrines and sects and highlight the growing difference in belief between Protestants. For example, in “A golden chaine,” William Perkins details the doctrine of Puritantism, preaching the existence of predestination and the elect, which hold that God has already determined who will be saved, regardless of one’s own actions in life. In contrast, the 39 Articles written to profess the principle of the Church of England, holding the Sacraments as true representations of God’s grace, a belief contrary to Puritans, and the application of predestination to not discount the good works of people in attaining salvation. “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift” is a striking display of this ideological divide, containing a literal argument and conflict on religious ideas, between a clergyman of the Church of England, Archbishop Whitgift, and a Puritan theologian, Thomas Cartwright. These two indivdual personify the conflict of English religious belief, clashing over the authority of church government and civil magistrates. Cartwright believed that the church government should hold a larger influence over the secular life, stating that the leaders and civil magistrates must govern in accordance to the rules of God. Whitgift rebuttals this and goes onto site that this religious influence in civil dealings, is much how the Papacy tried to wrestle the scepter from sovereign monarchs, like in England. It would seem that after breaking from Catholicism, the England has lost unity in its religious authority.

  4. The documents we were assigned to discuss were “The admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs John Wright” by John Wright, “A golden chain” by William Perkins, and “39 articles of the Church of England” by the Church of England. The first article, “The admonition controversy”, discusses how voting on church officials should be decided. This is because they need to decide if commoners can be trusted to vote in the church. The article is about John Wrights (Protestant) response to Thomas Cartwrights (Puritan) ideas. The second article, “A golden chain”, explains William Perkins beliefs and ideas as a puritan. This is a primary source and was written in 1591. Perkins explains his beliefs of “predestination” and “the elect”. These are ideas that are disagreed upon by the catholic church. The third article, “39 articles of the Church of England”, is a primary source written to explain where the Church of England stands on these conflicts. This is also a code of law. This document outlines what is allowed and what is not in the Catholic church.

    These texts explain the different concepts and ideas of the reformation. The second text explains the difference between protestsant and puritan beliefs. William Perkins communicates the puritan state and his belief in predestination and elects. The puritans believe that your fate was decided before you were even born. This aligns with the first text with Thomas Whitgaf and John Wright. This text clearly displays the differences when protestant John Wright debates with puritan Thomas Cartwright. The debate highlights the many differences between the two beliefs and how they plan on deciding the authority of the church. Cartwright believes that the only person the people answer is god. The protestants believe that is a scary idea. The 39 articles explains how the Church chooses to deal with the issues. The church decides to worship the two sacraments; Baptism and Communion. This goes against the puritans idea of predestination because this allows for people to decide their own future. The 39 articles set rules for people to follow.

  5. The first reading, “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift,” was written by John Whitgift. This reading is a series of responses between John Whitgift, presumably outside the church, and Thomas Cartwright, a member of the church community. In this primary source, Whitgift claims that the system in place for electing church officials does not work since the common people are corrupt. Whitgift also claimed that the church “is full of hypocrites, dissemblers, drunkards, and whoremongers…” The second reading, “A Golden Chain,” is a primary source that was written by William Perkins, who presumably was a profound theologist during his time. In this reading, Perkins discusses the idea of predestination and how people are chosen to serve by God not by the people. Perkins also talked about sacraments and how pitiful they are. Perkins claimed, “for the power of sanctification is only to the Holy Ghost, and Christ hath ordained the sign to signify grace, nor to confer it.” The third reading, “39 Articles of the Church of England,” is a primary source that attacks the way the church conducts their business. He stated various things such as the idea of predestination again and the elections for the church. Not only this, but he discusses the idea that, “and yet it is not lawful for the Church to ordain any thing that is contrary to God’s Word written.” He discusses this idea and how it is clearly not followed by the church in that period.

    Each of these readings defined reformation doctrines during their period, and each reading brought up good points on what the church was doing wrong. For example, A Golden Chain and 39 Articles of the Church of England both addressed the issues of predestination and sacraments. Both present the idea that everyone’s life path is chosen for them before they are even born, and that few people will be chosen to be godly. They both claim that the common people must put their faith in God because he knows best and you are on your path for a reason. Both readings also address the sacraments, and both are in agreement that sacraments are God’s blessing. According to 39 Articles, there are only two sacraments, which are Baptism and the supper of the Lord. In addition, Whitgift refuted the idea of the church exceeding the king in power, but Cartwright disagreed. Whitgift’s ideology was supported in the 39 Articles reading. Overall, these readings were very similar in the way they were speaking out against the way the church does things to protect the integrity of the religion.

  6. The author of the first text, “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift,” is John Whitgift. In these texts-which are primary sources-he denounces Thomas Cartwright’s opinion’s on the church. The second text, “A golden chain,” was written by William Perkins in 1591. In this text he outlines his beliefs-specifically ones about predestination. The third text, “Section from the 39 Articles of the Church of England,” is also a primary source. The 39 Articles lists the beliefs of the Church under Elizabeth’s rule. Some specific ideas mentioned are that Predestination to Life and the existence of only two sacraments.

    The first text defines Reformation doctrines when Whitgift declares that he disagrees with the notion that normal people should have the right to participate in the election of Church officials. This principle is repeated in the 39 articles when it states that only people that possess the Spirit of God should have a say in who the Church officials are. One difference between these texts is that Whitgift does not explicitly state his views on the sacraments, while the 39 articles states that there are only two. Whitgift provides more of a general overview of his beliefs that differ from those of the Church, where as the 39 articles states the specific rules of the Church. There is a significant disparity between the Puritan views of William Perkins and the 39 articles. Specifically, Perkins believed in double predestination. The 39 articles states that the consistent practice of the sacraments and Church tradition is enough to be saved.

  7. John Whitgift, was the archbishop of Canterbury who did a lot to strengthen the Anglican beliefs during the time of Elizabeth I. Though even after her death he continued to support the church in the reign of James I. Further setting the scene of Whitgift’s relationship with the Queen, they got along so well that he was actually appointed onto her Privy Council, making him the first bishop to ever be appointed. This source is a primary letter of John’s response to the Admonition. The Admonition states that the church is ridden with more “hypocrites, dissemblers, drunkards, and whoremongers” than ever before. Though, in Whitgift’s rebuttal he states that the church has always been filled with they kinds of people. However, he does agree with the sediment that is more than before, but that the church is not being run differently than when under the rule of other leaders. He even goes as far as to bring up issues that happened during the church of Corinth, and stating that they must not forget that. This text likely served as an example to people that thought under the new way of the church people were getting worse, but when in actuality there has always been sinners. It was to highlight the similarities in the churches and the way they were governed.
    William Perkins, who was an important Puritan preacher and had very strong opinions on predestination, writes the next primary text that has many different passages explaining his beliefs. What Puritans had specific ideas on when it came to predestination was the belief of double predestination. This different from the beliefs of other who either believed that you had control over whether or not you end up in heaven or hell. The double predestination belief was that no only did God predestine some to be eternally saved by going to heaven, but that everyone he choose not to save is subjected to be eternally damned. Perkins had gone as far as making an elaborate chart depicting the process of salvation. Meaning God has a direct choice and say in whom he always into heaven and that the decision is made before the people are even born. This text would likely cause a reader to deeply reflect on whether they will be saved or not, some might even had the attitude of well why not do whatever I want, because I am destined for hell from the start.

    The last text is “The 39 Articles of Religion”, written back in 1563, more or less a list and description of the core beliefs of the Anglican Church. These articles were written in a primary account by the Convocation of the church and the group utilized Cranmer’s 42 Articles as a basis, even though they were outlawed by Mary I, and then brought back but Elizabeth I. It was a few years later when Parliament had made these 39 Articles a legal obligation. These Articles include changes to the church such as their beliefs on the traditions of the church. For example, not all of the ceremonies had to be held in one place and each country has the ability to change the traditions based on their own desire. Also, when it can to the sacraments of the church they wanted to change them to lessen the affect the corrupt Apostles’ had. No longer where they going to be used as a way for people to exploit another, they were going to be “wholesome”. Someone reading this that had issues with how the church was run before would greatly like the changes being made. Though the Articles have been widely adapted depending on local circumstances, they still form the basis of many Anglican and Protestant churches today.

  8. The first text, “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift,” is a primary source including writings from Thomas Cartwright and John Witgift from the late 1500s regarding ideas of the role of the magistrate and church government. Thomas Cartwright was a prominent English Puritan churchman, whereas John Witgift was the Archbishop of Canterbury during Elizabeth I’s reign. In these writings Cartwright argues for the election of the magistrate and the superiority of the church in regards to the monarchy. Witgift offers rebuttals to these arguments as he greatly disagrees. The second text, “ A golden chaine,” is a primary source and a religious code written by a forerunner in the Puritan movement in the Church of England during Elizabeth I’s reign in the second half of the 16th century; William Perkins. Perkins outlines the beliefs of the Puritan movement in his writing–addressing topics such as predestination and the sacraments. The third source is also a primary source and religious code from 1563 during Elizabeth I’s rule, the “39 Articles” clarify the Church of England’s view on protestant ideals. The 39 articles are an amended version of the 42 articles release by Henry VIII and written by Thomas Cranmer. The purpose of this religious code was to define the doctrine of the Church of England.

    There is a conflict between the ideals of the protestant Church of England and the Puritan sect of the reformation. The conflicts arise over predestination, sacraments, role of magistrate, and church government. In the first source, there is a fierce debate between Puritan Thomas Cartwright and John Witgift the Archbishop of Canterbury regarding the election of the magistrate and the role between church and government. Cartwright believes there should be an election of the magistrate because he claims that there are no known hypocrites within the Church of Christ and if there are they should be excommunicated. Witgift argues that the Church has a large calling and casts a large net, “there be many called, but few chosen,” therefore saying that no matter what there will be hypocrites within the church and therefore the people should not be trusted to vote for the magistrate. Cartwright also believes that the monarchy’s duty is to “lick the dust of the feet of the church.” Witgift vehemently opposes this, claiming that it is not the church’s duty to rule civil matters within commonwealth and that the church has no place taking away authority and destabilizing governments. A similarity between Puritan views and the protestant Church of England is that they both believed in predestination, however there is less emphasis within in the Church of England. Another difference can be seen between the viewpoints of Puritan leader William Perkins and the Elizabethan 39 articles regarding sacraments. Perkins claims “we must not therefore surmise that there is any inherent force or efficacy of sanctifying in the visible and external sign of the sacrament… for the power of sanctification is appropriate only to the Holy Ghost…” therefore, Perkins denies the need for so many official sacraments. On the other hand, the 39 articles claim that “There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord.” This shows the difference between viewpoints in the reformation, some protestant sects such as Puritanism had views that differ from the protestant Church of England under Elizabethan rule.

  9. The first text “The Admonition Controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs John Whitgift
    was written in 1582 and was Whitgift’s response to Cartwright’s Admonition, which was a document written to Parliament to advocate for more reliance on scriptures and leadership from elders not bishops and clergymen. In Cartwright’s Admonition, he brings up that the church has many people who are drunks and do not believe in the scriptures trying to highlight the unethicalness of the church in order to force change. But Whitgift counters that by bringing up the Church of Corinth from the bible which was known for having some of the most ethical problems in the bible. Cartwright and Whitgift were both reformers, but Cartwright was a puritan, who tended to be more radical, which lead to different views on the church. Whitgift does hit back at Cartwright by calling him a supporter of the pope because he called kings to submit to churches which Whitgift called “pope speech” . Now this would have been very detrimental to Cartwright because being catholic was looked down upon during Elizabeth’s rule and would have discredited his views towards the church.

    The second article, “Religion in Tudor England” by William Perkins is a pro-reformation document where the accepted views of the church during Elizabeth’s rule are explained in detail. This document is very anit-catholic as Perkins says that the sacraments are useless and not needed. This makes sense as Perkins himself was a Puritan leader. The articles also outlines the idea of predestination and the elect and also the reprobation. In the article, Perkins outlines how God has written the names of the chose in the book of life, and how those are saved by his unending grace. This makes sense that an article like this would be published as this was a new view and the people would need to read more to understand fully what this view meant. He also outlines what the reprobation are, the people who are not the elect chosen by God. When talking about them he outlines how God is still fully graceful in not choosing them saying that not everyone accepts God’s grace. Both of these ideas are very complicated to understand so it makes sense that an article would be published to help clear them up.

    The last articles is the “39 Articles of the Church of England” which was written in 1563 by a convocation of churches and was based of Thomas Cranmer’s 42 articles. These articles outline the views of the church and Elizabeth during her rule, and are strongly protestant and against catholic points. In the articles, the idea of good works being necessary to salvation is condemned as Christ is the only way for salvation. It accepts the new view of predestination as correct. It states that the church must rule directly from scripture. And it denounces all the sacraments but two, baptism and the Lord’s supper. This document was written to unify the beliefs of the churches across England, and supports the reformation views and ideals while pushing the people further away from catholicism and the pope. This articles would help unite the people and their beliefs in order to make the nation act under the same moral principles and be unified under their religion.

  10. All the texts given reflect positions that seem to defend the Catholic Church. The first document is a primary source document written by John Whitgift. The primary source document is a rebuttal written by John Whitgift that aims to refute claims made by the Puritan Thomas Cartwright. Thomas Cartwright in his original text admonishes against the electoral process for the Church of England. His claim is that it is not right for the common people to note vote on bishops and other positions within the Church as the elected clergymen were drunkards and sinners that just elected those who would follow along. John Whitgift’s rebuttal is that the clergymen are better than that as men of God and the church as punitive systems in place to prevent it from becoming corrupted. The document is titled, “The Admonition Controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift”. The second document is another primary source document written in the 16th century. It is titled “A Golden Chaine” and is a primary source document written in 1591 by William Perkins. William Perkins was a Cambridge Theologian and a prominent leader of the Puritan movement at the time. The document written by William Perkins is a religious code of conduct for the Puritan Church that outlines various positions on God and Christ and how the Puritan Church itself should operate. The last test is another primary source document titled, “The 39 Articles”, which is a religious law code made during Elizabeth I’s reign. “The 39 Articles” document is a amendment to the original 42 articles written during Henry VIII’s reign by Thomas Cranmer for the Church of England. The document outlines how the clergymen of the English Church are supposed to act, conduct their churches, and engage with the common people of the land.
    All of these documents are similar in that they are laying some sort of conduct down in regards to their own religion. The “39 Articles” document and the “Golden Chaine” document both agree on the issue of sacraments. Both agree that they are gifts from God that men can use as a symbol of their faith to the Church. In the second document written by William Perkins, he outlines the Puritan views on predestination that differ from those presented in the “39 Articles” document. The Puritan view is that God has already decided who is fit to enter heaven while the Elizabethan view is that one has more impact on their destination during their lives than believed by the Puritans. The first document represents a direct class between Puritan views and those views of the Church of England. The clash is over the magistrates and how elected officials are appointed. They also disagree over the power levels between Church and King and who should be the most powerful. The clash of ideals was present throughout England as it was of great contention to which direction the Church of England would head.

  11. The authors of the Admonition controversy were Thomas Cartwright and John Whitgift. Thomas Cartwright was an English puritan churchman and John Whitgifft was the Archbishop of Canterbury. The author of a Golden Chaine was William Perkins who was a theologian and a leader of the puritan movement. The author of the 39 articles of religion come from the 42 articles of religion by Thomas Cranmer and then brought in via the Convocation of 1563 under Matthew Park, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The letters exchanged between Thomas Cartwright and John Whitgift have no date posted on them. The golden chain was written in 1591. The 39 articles of religion were established in 1563. The Admonition Controversy and its texts are clearly letters exchanged between Thomas Cartwright and John Whitgift. These letters highlight the discrepancies and conflicts surrounding the push from presbyterianism in the church of England from Thomas Cartwright. The letters include arguments focusing on the election of leaders within the church as opposed to appointing from the magistrate. These two individuals are writing these letters due to the further development of conflict within protestants regarding how the church should be governed. It is clear that supporters stem from a more traditional ex-catholic vs newer reformed puritan perspective. The golden chain was a book that focused on the order of the causes of salutation and damnation. Being a puritan reformer William Perkins wrote this book with the intention of having people question and discuss whether they are damned or not. The 39 articles of religion served the purpose of standardizing the religion moving forward in regard to the struggle between Catholic and Protestant advocations.

    In the Admonition controversy, the controversy itself originally surrounded the concept of vestments within the Church. John Whitgift who is considered to be solidly reformed disagrees with Thomas Cartwright who is classified as a more reformed protestant. While both of these men are considered protestant, there are still differences in regards to the concept of predestination and why more reformed protestants feel it shouldn’t be discussed within the church as it creates concern amongst the people. These letters also emphasize the role of the magistrate in which John Whitgift thinks the magistrate should appoint leaders stating that the church is full of hypocrites, dissemblers, and whoremongers would if an election would choose one like themselves. In this particular example, Cartwright believes that these people would be found and excommunicated by the church. In regards to the golden chain, the topic of predestination arises in which many protestants believe should be a part of the church teachings while others feel that discussing this with members of the church will only cause problems. In the case of William Perkins, as a leader of the puritan movement, his ideas conveyed in his book about predestination focus on the two-part rule involving “judgment of predestination” and then “use of predestination”. In the 39 articles of religion, the selections made regarding this text specifically relate to the sections of disagreement amongst protestants in regards to predestination and election, the authority of the church, as well as sacraments and traditions of the church. It can additionally be noted that much of what Whitgift argues is supported by the 39 articles of religion.

  12. First, the Admonation text is a primary source written by John Whitgift and is Whitgift’s response to a series of statements made by Thomas Cartwright. This primarily discusses the matter of electing church officials and appointing clergy. The main issue with that process is determining who is graceful in the eyes of god and who is not, a considerable debate between different types of protestants in England at this time. The Golden Chaine text is a primary source by William Perkins explaining his ideas as a Puritan. He attempts to clarify some misunderstood issues such as predestination, the “elect”, and denouncing of sacraments. Finally, the 39 articles reading is a document issued by English authorities clarifying the practice of the Church of England, distinctly seperating it from Catholicism by removing the sacraments and saying people must rely on God’s grace to get to heaven.

    At the time of the writings of these documents, England was very much divided in how to go about establishing its new doctrine of religion. On one hand there is a more conservative, almost catholic, side while on the other a very progressive puritan side. On the more conservative side was proponents of the Church of England establishing creeds similar to that of the catholic church in the 39 articles. However, in the same reading it declares sacraments to be unnecessary and is bringing sacred traditions into a more a more profane sense for a church service. However, on the other side a very progressive Puritan group is arguing that people can only be saved through God’s grace. This idea can be very unsettling as it suggests that life in itself can be pointless, and can create issues with worshippers. This dialogue represents the different arguments at the time.

  13. 1) Source one is a public controversy between Thomas Cartwright and John Whitgift and is a primary source. The subject matter of their dialogue is serious and pertains to the presence (or lack thereof) of sinners within the ranks of the church and the role of divine guidance in the magistrate’s governing of the land. In general, their correspondence pertains to the constitution and customs of the Church of England. Whitgift warns Cartwright that “hypocrites, drunkards, and whoremongers” fill the Church while Cartwright attempts to defend against these accusations. Likewise, Cartwright explains that the magistrate should be the servant to God’s divine will. Whitgift rejects this and asserts the sovereignty and autonomy of the magistrate in all matters. Thomas Cartwright was a 16th century English puritan theologian who became famous for publicly calling for Presbyterianism. John Whitgift was the Archbishop of Canterbury during his lifetime and used his influential position of deprived Cartwright of his professorship and fellowship at Cambridge. The Admonitions were written in 1570 and 1572 by Cartwright respectively. Whitgift’s replies were written within the same time frame.
    Source one is a surfacing of tensions characteristic to the broader Reformation happening in Europe (and England more specifically) at the time. Debates over the role of the magistrate and the scope of the church’s authority were common place.

    2) Source two is a primary source written by William Perkins in 1591. In several sections it affirmatively lays of the relevance of original sin, predestination, the sacraments, and reprobation by God. Perkin’s “A Golden Chaine” is written much like a textbook; it aims to teach a certain perspective rather than to counter another’s argument. Its descriptions are asserted with authority as if they are obviously correct. William Perkins was an English theologian during the Elizabethan era who became one of the most important leaders of the Puritan movement within the Church of England. In general, “A Golden Chaine” outlines the process of salvation and damnation. As a theologian, this text is an important contribution by Perkins to ministries across England. Although most of source two is straight forward, it does address a controversy over the validity of predestination as an principle of life. While some would claim that “God does not predestinate but only foreknows,” Perkins whole heartedly advocates the predestination of man by God.

    3) Source three is a collection of excerpts from the 39 Articles of the Church of England. The 39 Articles is a primary source, and it generated much controversy in 16th century England from its introduction as the 10 Articles in 1536 to its finalization as the 39 Articles in 1571. These excerpts are presumably taken from the final revision of 1571 during the Elizabethan era. This era saw the Church of England defined as separate from the Roman Catholic Church. The final form of the 39 articles was published under the direction of Matthew Parker, the Archbishop of Canterbury at the time know for his contributions to Anglican thought. Interestingly, the 39 articles confirms predestination and rejects the 5 sacraments in favor of just two: baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Other foundational beliefs are outlined as well. The 39 Articles shook up the political environment whenever it was released. It is because of this that it drew much attention in Reformational times.

  14. The three documents for this assignment are “The admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs John Wright”,”A golden chain”, and “39 articles of the Church of England”. The first article, “The admonition controversy” is written by John Wright (primary article) and touches on church officials and how they should be picked for positioning and be voted in. John Wright was a protestant who responded to Puritan ideas about commoners abilities to vote. The second article “39 Articles”, was written by the Church of England (primary source) as a sort of law code. It also touched upon the concept of predestination. Along with this concept, the third article, “A Golden Chain”, written by William Perkins (primary source 1591) also touches on predestination and the disagreement in the church with this concept.

    These articles help show the Reformation and how different codes and laws were passed over time to determine what was and wasn’t acceptable in the church- this included the common people and the clergy. England needed to decide how to create a new doctrine for religion. Some people and wanted to go against this and break away from the church. Along with predestination, the point of sacraments was mentioned in “A Golden Chain”. This saw sacraments as futile and not a necessary tradition for church.

  15. The first text, entitled “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift,” was written by John Whitgift. John Whitgift was an Archbishop appointed by Queen Elizabeth who was known to be against Puritan doctrine. This text was most likely written during the time period when Elizabeth was attempting to create a stable religious environment within England, specifically trying to calm the debate between Puritans and non-Puritans. This text is a series of responses made by John Whitgift to statements made by Thomas Cartwright, a Puritan, that support the common people electing members of the church. This text essentially displays the debate about the hierarchy of the church, with Whitgift arguing for a stronger, more Catholic-style hierarchy and Cartwright advocating for a more democratic and equitable church environment. “A golden chaine,” was written in 1591 by William Perkins, who was a Puritan. This text is a religious law code that serves the purpose of outlining the Puritan way of thinking about ideas such as predestination and the sacraments. The “Section from the 39 Articles of the Church of England” is an official religious law code of the English Church during the reign of Elizabeth I. Elizabeth I was a main influence in the contents of the 39 Articles. Specifically, her commitment to finding a balance between Protestantism and Catholicism is present within the 39 Articles.

    In the first text, Whitgift clearly supports a strong hierarchy within the church government and government as a whole, while Cartwright, the Puritan, supports a more equitable religious society, stating that the people are moral enough to vote. Cartwright asserts that since the church existed before the Englsih government, the church has more authority, but Whitgift, leaning more Catholic than Cartwright, completely disagrees. In “A golden chaine,” William Perkins outlines the importance of double predestination; this is the idea that when God chooses people to save, he also chooses people to damn. Perkins also downplays the importance of the sacraments, an idea that Catholicism stresses. The third text concerning the 39 Articles does present divergences with Perkins’ views. Predestination is discussed in the Articles but is not fleshed out in as much detail as Perkins’ double predestination philosophy is. Additionally, although Perkins does not advocate for any of the sacraments, the articles approve Baptism and the Supper of the Lord as sacraments. The articles go further to emphasize that good works are positive and signify good faith. These divergences from a strict Puritan philosophy and accommodations to Catholics such as the acceptance of some sacraments show how Elizabeth is trying to please as many people as possible with her new religious laws.

  16. The first text is an admonition of the Church and the state of the Church with a proponent of the Church arguing back. The text takes about how the Church can no longer be trusted in electing good and holy leaders because it is now filled with hypocrites and sinners. The text also discusses the relationship between the Church and the civil government and how that should work. The second text is by a man named William Perkins who was an important Cambridge Theologian. It discusses many theological topics from the time of the reformation including the topic of sacraments and predestination. It talks about how predestination has two parts, the elect and the reprobate, and it explains what both of those things are in detail. The final text is a selection of articles from the 39 articles of the Church of England. This text as well gives insight to the theological views that the Church of England put forth and declared during the reformation. This text covers a multitude of topics including original sin, free will, predestination, sacraments, and even tradition in the Church of England.
    The first text shows an example of a conflict about how the relationship between Church and state should appear. The first speaker talks about how religion and the church were made to be applied by the common wealth but that religion should not be government. The second author opposes this statement though and points out how throughout the Old Testament that Church and state were often one. This highlights an important conflict specifically in Reformational England where the Church essential was started by and ran by the government. The next two texts are in agreement on most topics including the sacraments and predestination. Perkins and the Articles of the Church of England both agree that the Sacraments are only a sign of God’s grace and do not confer grace about people. They also agree on predestination and the elect, specifically on the topic of the reprobate. They both agree that those who are predetermined to be damned by God are more likely to show signs of sin and lust throughout their lives. These texts give great insight to the theological thoughts and issues of the reformation.

  17. The first text, “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift”, is a collection of letters written by Cartwright, a Puritan theologian, and Archbishop of Canterbury Whitgift’s responses. In these letters, Cartwright and Whitgift argue about the role of commoners in the election of church officials, and the role of the civil magistrates in clerical procedures. Due to the letters being written by two prominent figures in the Elizabethan period, these can be described as primary sources. The second text, “A golden chaine”, was written by the Puritan theologian William Perkins and is a collection of Puritan beliefs. A primary source written in 1591, this excerpt primarily deals with the issue of double predestination but also mentions sin and atonement. The final text, “Section from the 39 Articles of the Church of England”, is an excerpt from the 39 Articles, a reaffirmation of the beliefs of the Church of England enacted by Elizabeth I and Archbishop Parker. As it is a religious act from the Elizabethan period, it can also be described as a primary source. In this excerpt, we see mention of religious subjects such as original sin, predestination, and the sacraments.

    In the first text, we see the division between English protestants prominently in the discussion of the role of the commoners in the election of clerical officials. Cartwright states that commoners should have this ability, whereas Whitgift argues that because today’s laypeople are hypocrites, they are likely to elect someone like them. Cartwright’s position shows the increasing divide between Puritan and Anglican thought as he demands an increase in the role of commoners, something that characterizes presbyterianism. This doctrine would become increasingly criticized by Elizabeth I and the English government as it can be interpreted to suggest a desire for republicanism. In the second text, William Perkins also exhibits more radical thought in his support of the idea of double predestination. In double predestination, not only does God choose to save an elect population, he also chooses to damn the remaining. This contrasts the opinion of the English government described in the 39 Articles, where God is described as bringing the elect out of damnation. This contrasts double predestination because it suggests that the damned, or reprobate as Parker refers to them, were not sent to Hell by God but just not saved by him. By framing predestination this way, the English government hopes to avoid the instability that could be brought by the uncertainty of whether commoners are eternally damned or not.

  18. The first of the Intra-Protestant texts, about the Admonition Controversy, is written by John Whitgift in response to Thomas Cartwright. These men were both high ranking church officials at one point in their lives and this article by Whitgift is a response to Cartwright on the issue of admonition. The issue is about how to select members of the clergy and Whitgift supports the English Church in this while Cartwright takes a more Puritan approach to the problem. The second text is called “A Golden Chaine” and is written by William Perkins about the Puritan’s beliefs in England during the reign of Elizabeth. Perkins talks about predestination and its place in the Puritan system of belief. The third text, “The 39 Articles,” is a doctrinal code written during Elizabeth’s reformational rule that continued the work of Henry VIII. The Articles are a corollary to Thomas Cranmer’s “42 Articles” which originally set the original doctrine for the Church of England. “The 39 Articles” directed the English clergy on how to comply with the Church of England’s reforms as they happened.
    The three Intra-Protestant texts detail the doctrinal and ideological differences between Puritanism and Anglicanism during Elizabeth’s reformational reign. “The 39 Articles” set up the rules for the clergy in the Church of England but the differences between them and the Puritans are larger than just the clergy. John Whitgift, in his response to Thomas Cartwright about admonition, expresses distrust of the common people in England because he does not think they are morally pure. He does not believe that people should be able to choose members of the clergy because of this. The goal of the Reformation was to purify the Catholic Church of corruption and sin and this is seen in the texts. Even though all of these groups have this same goal they deeply disagree about what actually has to be done to solve the problems of the church.

  19. The first text , “Admonition Controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift” is a series of replies and analysis of some of Thomas Cartwright’s thoughts and ideas about how the Church of England should be run and ideas about religion written sometime in the late 1500’s. The two of them very clearly come have different ideas on religion with Thomas Cartwright being a puritan and John Whitgift being Archbishop of Canterbury. Whitgift and Cartwright argue on the position of the civil magistrate and the church and the election of church officials. The second text “A Golden Chaine” was a book written by english theologian William Perkins in 1591 outlining his puritan beliefs on topics such as predestination and sacraments. This text is arguing from the point of view of puritans and written to make you challenge your beliefs in the church or solidify them as a puritan. The third text is a section of the 39 articles written by a convocation of the anglican church and issued by Elizabeth I in 1563. The 39 articles are an updated version of the 42 articles written by Thomas Cranmer under Edward VI and is used as a way to solidify what the anglican church beliefs were in a time when people didn’t exactly know which idealogical standpoint the church of England stood on. All of these texts are primary sources.

    These three texts manage to cover two different ideologies and try to solidify their points under both puritanism and the anglican church. Though both puritanism and the church of England do have some similarities, these articles seem to define them by their differences. One large topic of difference is their belief in the role of the church and state. In the Admonition Controversy, Thomas Cartwright seems to say that the puritan belief is that the only person the church should look up to is god himself. If the church has to look up to state and its government before god then the state is able to put restraints on what you can believe in. John Whitgift fights for the other point of view, stating that if the church only answers to god then the church will be more powerful than the state and the balance of powers between the two will be put into turmoil. You can also see a difference in the beliefs on the topic of sacraments. In the 39 articles, the church of England sees baptism and communion as the only two sacraments and see them as holy and a gift from god. While in the Golden Chaine, William Perkins goes over the puritan belief that sacraments are not holy and just rituals and objects that are useless. The area where you see some similarities is in their ideas of predestination. William Perkins manages to go over the topic of the “elect” and how one of gods roles is to choose if you will ascend to heaven or have eternal damnation. He goes over to talk about how since your fate is already sealed, you should just live your life in the best way possible for god and wait until your death for your fate. 39 articles covers topic of predestination and a similar response is given by the anglican church. Overall, these texts show the large diversity in beliefs between the Church of England and Puritans and how their lively debate is effecting the lives of commoners during the reformation.

  20. I can reasonably assume that all of these texts were written by leadership in the reformed church. All three texts were also likely written in the latter part of the reformation. The 39 articles are statements of belief or doctrine presumably produced from church leadership. This is in contrast to the other two texts which largely contained opinions on various aspects of the church. The text on admonition contained an argument that commoners should not be allowed to elect representatives in the church. While it provides arguments about the easy manipulation of commoners, I suspect the motivations were more political. The perkins texts explains his opinion on various aspects of the church including the role of sacraments and the fate of sinners. The 39 Articles states the core mission of the church, presumably to clear up confusion within the church.

    All of the texts seek to have their own interpretation of the reformation. The debate ultimately comes down to how much ‘reform’ should actually occur. There are varying opinions over what should change and what should remain the same. The official body of the church outlines their opinion in the 39 articles. One aspect it lays out is the role of sacraments. Along with Perkins, they both agree that the purpose of sacraments is to receive grace. The two disagree on their level of importance. Perkins argues that they possess very little saving power, if any. The church argues that there is importance in some sacraments such as baptism. In the text on adomation, one argument made is that commoners should not have a role in electing church officials. This is presumably in line with most of the hierarchy of the church. While it makes arguments about evil influencing possible elections, it is more likely to maintain their own power as leaders of the church.

  21. Both Thomas Cartwright and John Whitgift authored pieces within “The Admonition Controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift.” Cartwright and Whitgift were respectable figures within the church, Whitgift was Archbishop of Canterbury, and Cartwright was a well-known Puritan. This text was written in the midst of the Reformation, when Puritans were becoming more popular, and outwardly debating reforms.] for the church. This text is an account of the debate regarding who holds authority–civilly and in the church–and how they overlap. “A Golden Chaine” is written by reformers explaining the different doctrines of the reformed church. Likely written by clergymen or religious commentators, this text works to explain practices and beliefs at the time. Government officials working hand in hand with high-up clergymen authored the “Section From the 39 Articles of the Church of England.” This text was put back in place during Elizabeth’s reign, in order to appease reformers, and some Catholics. It defines the values of the church of England.

    In “The Admonition Controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift,” readers see the use of Sola Scriptura as evidence for Cartwright’s argument. He claims that the king’s authority is too invasive on the church and that the church has had too many power struggles and goals of wealth. In Whitgift’s response, readers find the support for the pope’s authority clear and reminds of the ongoing debate about roles for the church. Whitgift found that Cartwright wanted to overthrow the king’s authority, and argued that that would just result in chaos. There needed to be order within the church and in the government, and they could work hand in hand. “A Golden Chaine” explicitly describes the process of predestination and the roles of the sacraments. The author explains how God chooses who is saved and who is not saved, and if someone is unsure where they lay, He communicates with them some way sometimes. This text also emphasizes the fact that God is the only one who can give His grace, not clergymen, therefore sacraments are symbolic, if anything, when it comes to significance. In “Section From the 39 Articles of the Church of England,” church and government officials exemplify a strange mix of both reformed beliefs and Catholic ones. While clearly stating free will and also predestination, readers can see Elizabeth’s efforts to respect the Reformation, while keeping Catholics happy.

  22. The first text that was analyzed, “The Admonition Controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs John Whitgift” is a primary source featuring the written works of Thomas Cartwright and John Whitgift as Whitgift responds to Cartwright’s ideas regarding the English Church. The primary topics Whitgift and Cartwright write on are the danger of ill-minded common people interfering in the elections of Church officials and the role of the civil magistrate in the Church. Thomas Cartwright was a puritan, while John Whitgift was the Archbishop of Canterbury, the leader of the Church of England. These differing views and positions regarding Catholicism at the time show the divide they would have in terms of how reformed the Church should become and to what extent Catholicism should be followed. The second text that was analyzed, “A Golden Chain” is a book, and thus a primary source, written by William Perkins, a moderate Puritan, regarding his opinions on various aspects of the Church. Perkins discusses his opinion on matters such as sacraments, the elected, and the reprobate. The last text to be analyzed was “The Thirty-Nine Articles”, a doctrine, and thus a primary source presumably written by Church officials from the Church of England regarding the practices to be accepted and rejected within the Church, and the role that Catholicism plays among the Church. The Thirty-Nine Articles serve as a revised Forty-Two Articles previously written by Thomas Cranmer, and attempt to solidify the views of the Anglican Church.

    Overall, these texts show that in this time period, many of the practices of the Church and to what degree the Church should be reformed were called into question. In “The Admonition Controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs John Whitgift”, the varying views regarding the degree of reform within the Church during this time period are evident. John Whitgift, being the Archbishop of Canterbury, would be assumed to have a more traditional view of the role of the Church and Church Officials, while Thomas Cartwright, being a puritan, would likely support a reformed relationship between the common people and the Church. Thomas Cartwright saw no issue with common people being involved in the election of Church officials, while John Whitgift believed the common people would bring their hypocrisy and disbelief into the Church through the election of like minded individuals. Through this text, it becomes evident that puritans seeking more reform during this time would likely support the separation of the Church from the government and would like to see common people involved in the religious hierarchy. In “The Golden Chain”, William Perkins identifies many areas of Catholicism needing reform, and more specifically that there is no benefit in outwardly receiving the sacraments. Perkins also speaks on his views regarding the elect and the reprobate, saying that God elects certain people to salvation, and certain men to damnation. In this statement, Perkins effectively shows his rejection of the Catholic belief of eternal salvation for all men. The Thirty-Nine articles were more of a legal and binding doctrine, as it was written and passed by Church Officials under Elizabeth I. The Thirty-Nine Articles identify what is to be accepted and rejected under Elizabeth’s rule regarding the Reformation, and the practice of Catholicism within her realm. The Thirty-Nine Articles place more importance on the sacraments of Baptism and the Eucharist than the other sacraments. This text, in relation to Perkins’ work, shows that people or political bodies seeking reform have varying views regarding the Sacraments and how they should be applied.

  23. The first analytical text, “The Admonition controversy: Thomas Cartwright vs. John Whitgift” is a series of articles written by John Whitgift. The text touches on the debate on the topic of electing church officers. The document talks about whether or not commoners can be trusted to elect an officials as well as the current corruption in the electing body.The second analytical text, “A Golden Chain” written by William Perkens in 1591 about his protestant beliefs that were rejected by the church. He mentions ideas like predestination and the chosen people, what is now known as puritanism. The third text, “39 Articles of the Church of England” is a primary document written by Thomas Crammer stating how the church of England conducts their business. Very similar to Henry VIII’s document about how the church would address matrimony and divorce. The document credits predestination as well as two other sacraments as the official conduct of the church.

    The text are all and attempt by the authors to define their version or beliefs of the reformations. The variation that can be found in the three documents reflect the variety and the progress that the protestant reformation has made since Luther’s 95 theses. Some similarities are that all are different from the catholic church but the documents all convey a theme of advice. Where the authors wrote their beliefs of the church to influence or sway others into the same way of believing. In the 39 articles it becomes more about setting the tone for how Elazabeth believes the church should be run. Each individual movement its own unique aspects but some similarities might include the belief of predestination from both Perkins and the 39 Articles. However puritanism takes a separate route with the “city upon a hill” and the chosen people. One thing that many movements converge on is the election of church officials and to keep the power out of the hands of the general masses.

  24. The authors of these articles are theologians with differing views on the spectrum of the Protestant Faith. The first article is a series of correspondence between Thomas Cartwright and John Whitgift, two prominent theologians. They are describing a fundamental disagreement about the function of the Catholic church. The second text is a section of a book by William Perkins. He is outlining his theological stances, most notably his belief in double predestination. Neither of the first two documents are dated. The third document is a copy of a section of the 39 articles, or the religious code during the Elizabethan reign. They were completed in 1571. It is an official code and it describes the reformed protestant faith in England. It is often described as a compromise between traditional Protestant beliefs, and Protestants that wanted to reform further, especially in regard to Church hierarchy.

    The first article details the disagreement over the relationship between church and state. To Cartwright, the government must be framed to mirror the hierarchy and structure of the church. Whitgift disagrees with this notion entirely. Cartwright also has a more generally negative view of the way the church operates. He believes that the church is currently full of “hypocrites, drunkards, and whoremongers” and believes this needs to be fixed. William Perkins centers his argument around predestination, making his belief in double predestination known. He believes that God identifies the elect, who will be saved by god, and the reprobates who are destined for damnation. The 39 articles mostly lay out the governing rules for the Church. Most importantly they discuss predestination, the elimination of all sacraments except for baptism and communion, as well as the inefficacy of Good Works (Good Works can not bury sin).

Leave a Reply