Republican England Text Discussion

Respond to the following sets of questions (each with a 8 sentence, minimum, answer) below:

-Who were the authors of these texts (make reasoned speculations)? What kind of people were they (status, identity, etc.)? When were these texts written? What kind of texts are they (e.g. diary? pamphlet? law code? secondary scholarly source?)? What are each of these texts “doing” (What are these texts describing? What are these texts arguing? Why would the author write these texts?)?

-In what ways do the variety of positions (Presbyterian, Cromwellian, Leveler) reflect puritan concerns about government in church and state? What are the problems in England and what are the solutions? What should the basis of English society be so as to best secure peace and freedom?

29 thoughts on “Republican England Text Discussion

  1. While the specific authors of these texts are unknown, the three texts are all written by reformers. The first text is an agreement between the Scottish and the English, written in 1643. The agreement preserved the reformed Church of Scotland. It also was to serve as a model for Churches in ENgland and Ireland. Given this, it was likely written by Scots The second text is an ideal constitution written by the Levellers in 1647. It outlines reforms that bring the country in a democratic direction with restraints on parliamentary power. The final text outlines another constitution in England, written in 1653. It outlines a Lord Protector to lead England, supported by a council. It is not a hereditary position, though it appears to be for life. While more democratic than the previous system of government, it is a far cry from the radical reforms proposed by the Levellers.

    These three texts mostly outline the concerns of Puritans in England. Generally, they sought to reign in the power of monarchy. In the two constitution texts, they outline the concerns the concerns of puritans through the changes proposed. In the text written by the Levellers, democratic reforms such as: all are equal under the law, the expansion of voting and limiting the power of religious leaders to church matters were all proposed. It shows that they were concerned about the restrictions on who could participate in the political system and who the law applies to. In the second constitution: a Lord Protector is given the power to pardon and power over the military, Parliament can not be dissolved nor laws be made without its consent and Catholics may not vote. These proposals reflect a fear among Puritans that less power should be entrusted in one person and that councils should lead the country. The reforms outlined in the constitutions were seen as the best way to reform and govern English society.

  2. The first text is an official agreement between the English and Scottish from 1643. While the author of this document is unknown, the terms of the agreement allowed the Scottish Church to stay in tact. Also included in the opening statement of this text is Ireland. Given the statement “by the providence of God living under one King, and being of one reformed religion” from this wording it is clear this document was meant to help structure the Church in the three countries. The second document is a constitution written by the group known as the “Levellers” in 1647. It proposes reforms that would create a more democratic society by overhauling the way parliament is elected and run. Repeatedly the Levellers use the term “the people” to begin laws, a much more democratic phrasing than previously used. The last document is also a constitution written in 1653, also by the Levellers. This constitution calls for the people of England, Scotland, and Ireland to be “belonging, shall be and reside in one person, and the people assembled in Parliament: the style of which person shall be the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.” This Lord Protector would replace the monarchy and push a more Demorcratic government.
    The common thread across these three texts is a Puritan push for a more democratic form of government leading into the third text in which essentially they call for the end of the monarchy. Under the first constitution written by the Levellers, phrasing such as “The people” are used and the expansion of who is allowed to vote in Parliamentary elections is suggested. In the second constitution the term “Lord Protector” is introduced to replace the role of what has typically been a monarch. The Lord Protector will have a council of advisors (13-21) and will not have the sole authority to call upon a standing military, only with the consent of Parliament as well. This document outlaws any Catholic who helped the rebellion in Ireland from voting in elections or being elected to official positions. These constitutions are an example of Puritans not trusting the monarch and hoping to create a government where no one person has too much power.

  3. The three articles highlighted in this blog post are: “The Solemn League and Covenant” (1643), “An agreement of the people and the Putney debate” (1647), and “The instrument of Government” (1653). The first document is an agreement written about the scottish, english, and irish. This document is written in England but allows for the Scottish church to stay together. This document also highlights how they believe all three churches need to be improved when the article states “whereof the deplorable estate of the Church and kingdom of Ireland, the distressed estate of the Church and kingdom of England, and the dangerous estate of the Church and kingdom of Scotland”. This statement shows how they are looking for unity and overlap in the Churches. The second article is written by “Levelers”, but the name of the authors are unknown. The article is a Constitution written by these levelers that highlights a democratic state and changes the way Parliament should be elected and ran. The beginning of the name of the document, “an agreement of the people”, is very persuasive because it gives a feeling of unity among the people. The third article is another Constitution written by the Levelers in 1653. This article has the same basic principles of the Constitution written in 1647, but names the leader of England, Scotland, and Ireland as Lord protector and would be in place of the Monarch.

    These articles have many ideas in common. The biggest idea highlighted in all three articles is the Puritan push to become a more Democratic state. This is very important throughout the articles to the point where they try to end the monarchy. The third article explains how they would replace the monarch with a Lord Protector. Thomas Cromwell is appointed the Lord Protector and has the same powers as the monarch. Cromwell was awarded the title of King but denies the title because he was against the monarchy. The Protector has a council of advisors which help with many decisions made in the state. The Puritans did not like the idea of a monarch because they believe the monarch had too much power. This is why they try to establish a democratic state where power is divided among many people.

  4. The authors of text one, “Solemn League and Covenant” were Scottish Covenanters and members of Engligh Parliament. They were Presbyterians that united under the cause of reforming religion. They officially wrote out text one in 1643, six years before King Charles I was executed and at the beginning of the English Civil War between royalists and roundheads. The text is an official government document that affirms government powers especially regarding religion. Specifically affirms the endeavor to stamp out Church government, preserve the rights and privileges of parliament, maintain the King’s authority, stamp out political and religious corruption, keep the three nations united and maintain peace. Text two, “An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate,” was written by the Levellers while the latter is an account of Parliamentary speeches made by Rainsbourgh discussing the Leveller document. Text two was written in 1647, two years before King Charles I was executed just after the end of the first English Civil War. The first portion of text two is an official document created by the Levellers political movement that first criticizes the English government for having unequal distribution of representation, and too long of periods between elections. Then it moves on to advocate for religious toleration, outlawing the draft, that the laws affect everyone equally regardless of status, and that the laws made are equal as to benefit all of society. The second portion of the text sees Parliament debate these Leveller ideas as defended by Rainsbourough for implementation. Finally text three, “The Instrument of Government,” was written by English Parliament in 1653, four years after the execution of King Charles I. Text three is the equivalent of a constitutional amendment that restructured the English government under a “Lord Protector” who was to be Oliver Cromwell. Furthermore the document essentially is the same structure as before with an executive power, a council to advise them, and a parliamentary body. It also outlines the powers of the Lord Protector, being electable and for life, establishing that parliament will be summoned regularly, and that the Christian faith will be protected.

    Presbyterians reflect puritan concerns as seen in text one a primary concern of theirs was stamping out corruption in both church and state. Cromwell reflects puritan concerns about government as he established a series of laws that adhered to Purtian morality, uniting church and state further. He outlawed Christmas and other religiously questionable activities. The problems in England mostly are Parliaments issue of finding a way to pay their standing army. In order to pay them they would have to raise taxes, but the commonwealth government was too unpopular to do that. England is also within a time a great reform as all the texts either established changed or called for change in government. The common factors among the texts are called for decreased corruption, a clarification of parliamentary and executive powers, and the maintaining of the common faith. The basis of English society should be entirely political entrenched in parliament as the executive seems to change often with the overthrow of Charles, installation of Oliver Cromwell, and Oliver Cromwell’s elation to the equivalent of a king.

  5. Each of these texts was written during a time of political reform in England. Through the times differ the political changes throughout each text are evident and definable. Additionally, the specific authors of each text are unknown, but can be speculated. As for the first text, A Solemn League Covenant, is a Law code establishing consistent practices and operations of the reform churches of England, Ireland, and Scotland. This was done in order to protect and keep the reform Churches especially in Scotland from destruction. Thus, the authors or instigators can be speculated to be of Scottish birth/ allegiances. The second text An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debates, is a text within a secondary scholarly source that includes a transcription of a debate between multiple individuals regarding Leveller beliefs. Throughout this text two main points are discussed between two MP’s Ireton (against the agreement) and Rainsborough (for the agreement) of voting suffrage and distribution of representatives. Rainsborough believes that every individual no matter how poor has the right to have a say in his governing body whereas Ireton greatly disagrees keeping a forty-shilling worth and landowning requirement. Additionally, Rainsborough believes that the representatives should be equally distributed which Ireton actually agreed with but disagreed about who should be allowed to elect the representative. The last text, The Instrument of Government, is essentially a constitution of England’s parliament. It goes over in detail the rights of the Lord Protector and the regulations of parliament. Overall each of these texts promote a more democratic leaning of the role of English government through the outlining of religious practices, parliamentary laws, and the concept of individual birth rights.
    The Presbyterian, Cromwellian, and Leveller perspectives illustrated in each of these texts demonstrate the democratic leanings of politics and practices of the time, thus reflecting the puritan concerns of Church and State. The first text identifies the puritan concerns of Church power and how it has the ability to cross into the political realm of English government due to individual’s strong belief in Gods ability to guide decisions and outcomes. This text outlines just and right practices that the reform Church’s need to follow limiting their ability to influences politics and issues of state. The second text is clearly that of Leveller concerns because it is speaking to ideas illustrated in the “party’s” An Agreement of the People. This text illustrates an effort to control the governments involvement in personal affairs by giving power back to the individual through their right to vote on representatives and equal representation for counties and boroughs. The last text is that of the Cromwellian viewpoint and clearly outlines the abilities and powers of the State. This should ease Puritan concerns because the governments rights are now written down and therefore must be followed limiting and controlling their influence and power. Each of these text outline ways in which the issues of the distribution of political and religious power was distributed throughout the realm. Thus, allowing the concept of England’s foundation becoming that of securing the peace and freedom of the people. Which is important because it gives power and rights to the people while insuring that the government and church are acting for the best outcomes of society.

  6. The solemn league and covenant is a treaty between the English parliament and Scotland on September 25, 1643. Although there is no known author it is assumed that the English parliament drafted the majority of this document. The purpose of the text to establish a treaty between the English parliament and Scotland for the preservation of reformed religion in Scotland, England, and Ireland as well as to remove popery. The texts “An agreement of the people and the Putney debates” are texts written presumably by the levelers in October of 1647 and illustrate in a constitution like fashion the way that the government should be structured especially in relation to parliament. The document serves to illustrate the current unjust system and calls to not only dissolve parliament but create a parliament that is in support of the common person rather than strictly the ruling elite. The last document, “The instrument of Government” was written in December of 1653 by Major-General John Lambert. The document was a constitution of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland making it the first written constitution in England. The document serves the purpose of replacing the traditional structure of King, Lords, and Commons with that of King, Council, and Parliament. The title of the king in the original draft of the document was replaced with lord protectorate at the request of Cromwell.

    The positions seen via Presbyterianism, Cromwellian, and Leveler show commonalities in regard to the desire to continue the reformation in a way that is more supportive of the common person and establishes a divide between church and state. The concept within the instrument of government that changes the relationship that is held between the people and government from King, Lords, and Commons to Protector, Council, and Parliament is representative of the evolution within politics during this time period. The puritan concern for the common person seems to be instrumental in the cause of the distanced relationship between the church and the state as viewed throughout these documents. The problems that exist in England mainly stem from the fact that the individual person is dissatisfied with representation within the government and that conflict between groups is only rising over time, especially within the formal government as seen via parliament. In order for people to feel that that they have been represented in some way by their government, there is a trend across these various groups especially amongst Levelers that calls for attention and focus on the individual.

  7. The first text, “The Solemn League and Covenant” is a Law code written in 1643 by the House of Commons involving the churches of Ireland, England, and Scotland at the beginning of the English Civil war. The document serves as a treaty between the English and Scottish parliament so they can preserve their reformed churches. The second text, “An agreement of the people and the Putney Debate” is taken from a book written by the Levellers in the general council of the army in the year 1643. It focus’s on the argument that all individuals of England should be allowed to vote for parliament and there should be more representation by all classes. They also emphasize that parliament should meet more often. A debate rises between Rainborough, a Leveller, and several Leveller MP’s on the topic of all individuals being allowed to vote. The third text, “Instrument of Government” is a legal document written by the English parliament in 1653 after the English Civil War. This document talks about the creation of a lord protector and his regulations as well as the regulations of parliament, trying to emphasize a more democratic state, though Lord Protector seems to have more privileges than the king used to have.

    Throughout all these different positions, each one seems to favor Puritanism directly or indirectly. In the first text, they manage to preserve the English church while creating a divide between church and state by taking away any power the church had in the government. Both the second text and the third seem to push reform in favor of the common man has you see the Levellers debate over how often should parliament meet and the amount of representatives from each social class should be in parliament. The third document clearly lays out what the power of the state is, most likely easing the conscious of a worried Puritan. With having such a long civil war, most of the problems of the state came through how to pay for the war, with very limited money in the bank. The basis on English society should be more heavily pushed to parliamentary control rather than an over arching figurehead. Though Oliver Cromwell has now the name “Lord Protector”, he is still just as, or even more, powerful than what the king was and having a single man in charge can lead to changes that won’t look out for the best of most of England

  8. The first text is written by House of Commons in Parliament, who published this guide on how to live faithfully and how do so while respecting the honor of the King. The list goes into great depth how the unity between the reformed Churches of Ireland, England and Scotland is imperative to their success as a whole religion. The document even draws on past experience and how not getting along because of certain Kings that were in power, only hurt every kingdom involved and was not affective. It is as a united front that they can all work together and achieve the same desired goal of living in a country not controlled by the Pope and Catholic Church.
    Someone reading this text, seeing that the government published it would be compelled to follow its instructions and live in accordance with how it says.
    The second article is written by “army agitators and political Levellers”, in which they came together to draft their own version and ideas of what to do after the Civil War. Much of the reform that this group believed would be successful included getting rid of the current system with Parliament, since it not democratic enough. It was thought that too much power lie in the hands of people who did not represent a majority of the people. Also, a major problem that was occurring during this time was that the people in Parliament had been in power continuously for an extremely long amount of time, this is something that they wanted to change by having elections every few years. Someone reading this text that was a commoner would likely support the changes being made and advocate for. The last text that represents the Cromwellian view, “The Instrument of Government”, is another document like “Solemn League and Covenant “ that addresses, England, Ireland and Scotland. This document is an article of rules that Parliament should abide by which include not passing laws, or in forcing anything onto the people that the major of Parliament does not all agree to. A claim made in this article is by having a form of government in which someone known as the “Lord Protector” who has the power, this person would together with a group and would seemingly be more democratic then the current system.
    The main message that stems from each, Presbyterian, Cromwellian, Leveler, by each of these documents is clear: the people at the time wanted Parliament as well as the Church to be more democratic. This translates into the belief of the Puritans of the time. The commoners did not feel lie they had a say in what happened to them, meanwhile there was the same group of people in power for numerous years doing as they pleased. Their many people were speaking out and pushing for reform as exemplified in these three works. These works explicitly go into detailed the kind of change and reforms that would benefit to society, it was about spreading the word. Encouraging people to give the fight against the way the government was being run, and get them questioning if the fairness of the current system. Highlighting the fact English society should be peace and freedom, it is what the people, Presbyterian, Cromwellian, Leveler alike, were demanding.

  9. “The Solemn League and Covenant” is a primary document that seems to be written by more or less the English Parliament as a whole in 1643. The goal of the document is unity, as the tone of the author clearly indicates that there is some yearning for the churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland to overlap in beliefs and structure. However, the document is essentially rewarding the Scottish church the ability to stay in tact and for a peaceful relationship be established between this sect of the Scottish and the English parliament. Next, “An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate” is a primary source, written by Levelers in 1647. This document vividly portrays the beliefs of the Levelers in that the authors of this text specify their issues with the English parliament, even suggesting establishing one that serves the common man rather than those who rule above him. The Constitution subsequently specifies the manner in which the Levelers believe the government should be ran, with a drastically more democratic way of going about things as in having a government that was centered around helping those that needed it. This document perfectly demonstrates the contrast in beliefs between the parliament and Levelers of the time. Finally, “The Instrument of Government” is a primary document written by John Lambert with an intent similar to that of “An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate”. These two articles are similar in the way Lambert lays out the way he sees it fit to run the English government, which can also be seen as the Cromwellian way. Some of these suggestions entailed the majority of parliament needed to pass legislation, as well as other ways of decentralizing the English government.
    A major problem noticed by most in England at this time seems to be the centralized structure of the government going off of the documents from this week. Although altering the system in different ways, these factions seem to agree that the power of rule in England needs to be in the hands of more people. These documents also support the claim that all three viewpoints desired a more democratic Church as well as government. A more democratic Church gave people a similar sense of security to an increasingly democratic government due to the importance of religion in people of that time’s lives. The mention of a “Lord Protector” in the third document speaks volumes to the intensity each group had towards actively changing the governmental structure in England. The monarchy now seemed as ancient and evil as ever to almost everyone in England. It would be hard to argue for the basis of England to be anything but Puritan at this point in time to have the best success. The Puritans in parliament are some of many actively pushing for a more democratic state and for the power to be distributed in a more efficient and safe manner. Furthermore, Catholics were banned from voting so to really have a stake in the government like the reformers desired, they would need to prove their Puritan before casting a vote.

  10. the three texts discuss the new trends and shifts in the current governmental climate of England Scotland and Ireland. The First text “Solemn League and Covenant” with no identified author. Written somewhere between early to middle September of 1643. With them being about talks regarding the agreement made between the English, Scottish, and Irish. As they form into one big governmental body. The second text “An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate” has no credited author for the specific portions of text from presumably a larger body of the text. The text is created in late October of 1647. The text describing a document that pertains to both political and legal aspects with it being for the levelers as some form of legislation. With details regarding voting and how they are currently excluding landless people and Farmers from voting. The third text “The Instrument of Government” once again has no author reference and was also written in December of 1653. With this being a much more traditional legal document listing the many new rules and regulations imposed onto the government and people with regards to the agreement mention in text one with the English, Scottish, and Irish.

    The three texts all present various concerns about the past ways in regards to puritan views about the church and states. Most of the texts seem to try and bring back the monarch style of rule. But the first texts do also separate the powers of church and state making them not ruled by the same entity. the Second text shows the levelers describing their concerns about the distribution of power in the government with the restrictions in voting, but they also speak of how the lord protector must-have issues pass through parliament (which cant be dissolved.) in order to become a real thing in society. The problems England has is due to the way they assemble themselves governmentally with them having a monarch style rule then abandoning it them going back. But the most recent form of church and state separate and having the lord protector and parliament being the most democratic which is the ideal style to benefit and satisfy the most people. I do believe this system is the best in order to ensure peace within the realm. As long as there are limitations to anyone positions power and time allowed in position.

  11. The first text, “The Solemn League and Covenant” seems to be a primary source from 1643 written by the English government. This primary source is a document that serves almost as a treaty between the English, Scottish, and Irish parliaments in order to allow the preservation of their reformed churches. Another goal of this treaty was to fully remove popery from these three regions. The second text, “An agreement of the people and the Putney Debate” is a primary source from 1643 that was written by Levellers. This document outlines how the Levellers believe that the government, or parliament, should be more democratic and focus on working for everyone, not just the rich and powerful land owners that can vote. The Levellers believe that everyone deserves equal treatment and that the parliament should be changed, which is in disagreement with parliament at the time. The third document, “Instrument of Government” is a primary source written by the English parliament in 1653. It is basically a constitution for the english parliament, which was to reorganized under a Lord Protecter, who was to be Oliver Cromwell. Oliver Cromwell actually had more privileges than most previous kings as Lord Protector, and he would work to push a democratic government.

    The Presbyterian, Cromwellian, and Leveller perspectives illustrated in each of these texts demonstrate the flaws in the governments at the time, in addition to the fact that the church and state needed to be separated. In the first text, puritan concerns are expressed about the church and its ability to influence political outcomes. Puritans strongly believed that the church should not be all powerful. In the second text, the concerns of the Levellers is discussed. The Levellers believed that the commonfolk should be given more power in voting, and they should be allowed to dictate their government rather than just the rich and powerful getting a say. This would shift them more towards a democratic government, which is exactly what they wanted. In the third text, the power of the state is directly written down and said, which means that the state now had to directly follow a strict set of rules now. This could have been meant to give the Puritan’s concerns some regression. The basis of English society should be more focused on democracy rather than monarchy. Unfortunately, Oliver Cromwell was named “Lord Protector,” and has more power than a monarch, which could be leading England in the wrong direction. England needs to give more power to the people or they will revolt.

  12. The first text is a parliamentary act written in 1643 that establishes the union of England, Scotland, and Ireland through 1 reformed Christian church, denouncing the pope and all form of church government. This text is clearly written by a reformer and wants parliament to establish a reformed church for the nation. The next text is a declaration by the levelers made in 1647 and an account of the Putney debates. The levelers declare that they believe the English people should be treated equally in the eyes of the law, especially with fair representation in parliament. The Putney debates were a discussion on the reseating of parliament in order to more fairly represent the people. The final document is a parliamentary document written in 1653 establishing the English government’s Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. It outlined how this new semi-monarchy would operate under Cromwell with provisions for a standing army, lifelong term, and establishing a church.

    Puritan concerns are reflected across the English government at this time. They primarily wanted to establish control over the English government to prevent it from being able to reform and change continuously. For instance, none of them wish to establish one unified church, but rather have the churches be their own communities of people that change as the members of them see fit. Additionally, instead of establishing Cromwell as King, he is the Lord Protector and has no hereditary ties to any form of monarchy, and a provision for selecting a new Lord Protector is in place. As for parliament, it must now be reelected on a more regular basis to ensure it properly represents the people. It is also suggested that more people be allowed to vote. Clearly, England all around is trying to be able to reform and be a better government for its people.

  13. The first text, “Solemn League and Covenant,” is a primary source written in 1643 by Alexander Henderson. This document was a written request by the Scottish presbyterians asking the English presbyterians to unite with them and promote the reformation together. The second text, “An agreement of the people and the Putney debate,” is a primary source written in 1647 by the Levellers. The Levellers are described as a radical political group who wanted England to return to a time when freeborn people had more of a say in their government. This document is a proposition that the Levellers gave that describes a government that is focused on equal distribution in parliament representation. The third text, “The Instrument of Government,” is a primary source written in 1653 by the Levellers. This document established the Lord Protector. The rest of the document describes the authority that the Lord Protector has.
    The “Solemn League and Covenant” illustrated that the presbyterians believed the government should maintain a strong role in the regulation of religion. They had this document signed by both the scottish parliament and english parliament which proves that they believe the continuation of the reformation may be hindered if not backed by the two countries’ governments. During this time, there were many radical political groups forming. While the overwhelming majority of English people supported puritanism, most groups felt threatened enough that they felt government intervention was necessary. There are also several discrepancies within the structure of the government. After parliament voted to execute the king, Cromwell made himself executive. Essentially, Cromwell acted as a king, but during this time parliament had been gaining power. This struggle of power made it difficult for the government to be efficient, preventing the common people from feeling secure.

  14. The Solemn League and Covenant was written by the the House of Commons on September 25, 1643. This is a formal declaration by parliament on how they are are going to handle religion and some of the issues that come with it. This would be a primary source document because it is written directly by the house. The house talks about how to handle treacherous plots against the church. It also refers to unifying the three kingdoms of Ireland, Scotland, and England. Obviously the text was written by reformer because it denounces the pope and catholic supporters. This is parliament making a unifying stand and denouncing all popery and catholic supporters. This document further supports catholicism as heresy. It also states that they do not want to practice catholicism that way they do not catch the plagues from the God. The second article “An agreement of the people and the putney debate” is a text written in 1647 by the levelers discussing the rights and privileges of the English people. This involved dismissing the long parliament that has been in session, electing their own parliament members and the idea of freedom of religion. The Putney debate discussed the idea of reseating the house of commons. Both of these articles hit at the same idea: separation of church and state. The levelers believe that parliament and the church is corrupt so the entities needs to be seperated and that the church should have no actual power. This idea would be revolutionary in England and would be considered puritan in view, but hoped to solve some of the main problems that England faced. The third article is “the Instrument of Government” which was passed on December 16, 1653 by Parliament. It is a law decree which sets up in effect the new monarch of united Ireland, Scotland, and England. It creates a new position called Lord Protector who will rule over the people. It also states the parliament and the Lord Protector will control the militia, the Lord Protector will have control over foreign affairs. It also states that any one who assisted Ireland in their fight for freedom can never run for office. This is a very smart move because it eliminates many oppositions to the current rulers by not allowing their opinion to be heard. The article also established Oliver Cromwell as the Lord Protector. While Cromwell does not take the title of the king, he in effect takes over his powers and even more. This is a very savvy move by Cromwell because on the outside it appears as if there is no king and the people are creating the rules, but in reality the people have just swapped one king for another.

  15. The first text is titled “Solemn League and Covenant” and is from 1643. The second text is titled “An agreement of the people and the Putney debate” and is from 1647. The third text is titled “The instrument of Government” and is from 1653. The first text was written by Scottish Covenanters and members of the English parliament as it is an agreement between the English and Scottish. The agreement allowed the Scottish church to remain. It also included Ireland and made the form of the churches among the three places. The second text is a primary source document of a debate between Levellers. They are debating the topic of voting suffrage and the distribution of representatives. The last text is also a primary source. It is a constitution of England’s parliament and addresses the role of the Lord Protector.
    The three texts focus on the views of the Puritan perspective. They are focused on making a more democratic form of government. The title “Lord Protector” is used instead of the title of King for example. The Lord Protector is also controlled by a council of advisors further limiting the power of a single person to rule. The main concern was to limit the traditional power bestowed upon a monarch. The texts also highlight the overlying trend of reform at the time of the English government. The first text also highlights the power of the Church. It focuses on how the power of the Church can influence the people and government.

  16. The Solemn League and Covenant is a primary source law code written in 1643 by Scottish Covenanters and accept by the House of Commons that same year. The Scottish Covenanters wanted a government that backed the reformed faith or Presbyterianism, and the House of Commons required the aid of the Scots against the forces of Charles I and royalist sympathizers in Ireland. This document outlines the duties of Parliament in protecting the reformed faith. The second source is likewise a primary source written October 29, 1647 and features the Agreement which is a recorded debate in Parliament between Rainsborough and Ireton, both MPs. Rainsborough had Leveler sympathies and that can be seen in his attempt to argue for the suffrage of all Englishmen by birthright. Ireton fires back saying that to allow anyone to vote regardless of holding a stake in political affairs would be to create anarchy. The third source, The Instrument of Government is a primary source constitutional settlement of 1653 establishing Cromwell as the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth and enumerating the powers of Parliament beneath him.

    The first text deals explicitly deals with concerns about government in church and state. The Presbyterians in Scotland tactically took advantage of the opportunity of the time to press for protection of their faith. The Royalist upsurge created this opportunity by putting pressure on Parliament who needed allies. The debate between Rainsborough and Ireton a few years later reflects a challenge to the constitution of government and the social contract delegating people’s places in society and their roles within government. Much of what we have discussed so far has surround theological concerns. The Agreement is a divergent example of political focus. The Instrument of Government is a foundations document, even a turning point in English society and governmental constitution. No longer would England be a monarchy, but a Republic. Cromwell became the Lord Protector of a united England, Scotland, and Ireland and essentially was more powerful than any King before him but just lacked the title.

  17. The first document, “The Solemn League and Covenant,” is a legal document that was published by the House of Commons on September 25, 1643, during the English Civil War. It represents an agreement made with Scotland by Parliament to uphold Presbyterian values. It therefore supports the “preservation of the reformed religion” in England, Scotland, and Ireland, while also claiming to support bringing consistency to religion throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland. It is also notable that this document is anti-Papist and seeks to get rid of any doctrine deemed counterproductive or to be heresy by the English church. If anyone is caught “hindering the reformation of religion,” this document lays out specific punishments to be met. The second document, “An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate,” is from the point of view of the Levellers group. “An Agreement of People” is essentially a plan that lays out basic rights that the Levellers deem important, such as the dissolution and continuous reelection of the current Parliament and a more equilateral representation system within Parliament. “The Putney Debates” is a documentation of a debate concerning the specifics of how representation in Parliament should be determined. This debate is between two MPs, Thomas Rainsborough and Ireton. The third document, “The Instrument of Government,” is a constitution of England that was published on December 16, 1653. It seeks to lay out the ground rules of English society after the Civil War has ended. One of the most important tasks of this document is the establishment of the Lord Protector as a position and the naming of Oliver Cromwell to this position.

    The Presbyterian point of view in the first document reflects Puritan concerns over church. This is because it draws a relatively hard line on the enforcement of one religion through England, Scotland, and Ireland. The first document also makes it clear that Catholic or Papist actions or beliefs will no longer be tolerated and will be met with clear punishments. The Leveler point of view expressed in the second document reflects Puritan beliefs in that it promotes a more equilateral distribution of representation and a new voting system for Parliament. This corresponds with the Puritan belief in representation and going against the old Catholic hierarchical tradition. The “Instrument of Government” furthers this Puritan belief by replacing a king with a Lord Protector, who would be checked constantly by a council, as stated in the document. Overall, the three positions reflect a shift in English society so that the basis of society is becoming more representative of the people. The society is becoming more equilateral and united, both religiously and politically.

  18. The three texts are title, “Solemn League and Covenant”, “An agreement of the people and the Putney debate”, and “The instrument of Government”. The text “Solemn League and Covenant” from 1643 was written by Scottish and English to show an official agreement between the two governments. This document allowed the Scottish to keep their church’s and also added in Ireland to the agreement. The next text is “The instrument of Government” is a primary source written in 1653. This was an English government document ( a constitution ) that explained the role of what was called in England, “The Lord Protector”. The final document is “An agreement of the people and the Putney debate” written in 1647 and is also a primary source. This was a debate with Levellers about suffrage and representation and distribution of it.
    All three texts touch upon and have to do with the puritan views on church and state. Along with this show the desired democratic point go view for church and state. In the second document, a “Lord Protector” is mentioned which goes to show again the importance of the new viewpoint of democracy and the government changing in England. England was extremely if not totally Puritan at this point, and showed the focus to best secure peace and freedom.

  19. The first text “The Solemn League and Covenant” is a primary source written in 1643 by the Covenanters, a prominent sect of Scottish Presbyterians. In this document, the Covenanters outline a proposal for a unified England, Scotland, and Ireland under one King and one Church, that are dedicated to the Reformed religion. The second text “An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate” features two primary sources, both written in October of 1647. The first document, “An Agreement of the People” was most likely written by John Wildman, a member of the Leveller movement that the document would become associated with. Wildman and the Levellers outline their proposal for a new government that is dedicated to an expansion of the franchise and a more equal representation of the kingdom’s towns and boroughs. The second source in this text is an excerpt from a debate that occurred in Putney church and was most likely written by an official of the military or Parliament tasked with recording the happenings of the debate. During this debate, MPs Rainsborough and Ireton debate the contents of “An Agreement of the People” and whether they should be applied to the government. While Rainsborough believes that it is any citizen with birthright’s right to be involved in their government, Ireton believes that only those with the knowledge and dedication of politics should be allowed, meaning those that own property. Finally, “The Instrument of Government” is a primary source written in 1653 by John Lambert. This legal declaration or constitution describes the new title of the Lord Protector and outlines its responsibilities and powers. In addition to this, among other things, it also introduces a statute forcing Parliament to meet at least once every three years and forbids the participation of Roman-Catholics in the election of Members of Parliament.

    Despite the constant accusations that seemed to be so prominent in this era of English politics, all Puritans shared many common goals and despised both Popery and Anarchy with a burning passion. However, with factors like the spread of the printing press and the loosening of censorship laws, many ideas were circulating about both religion and government that would come to polarize groups. One movement that came to be a standard for puritan thought at the time was Presbyterianism. Due to Charles I’s execution, those who would have supported his ideas of maintaining an episcopal church would have either fled or changed their views. As a result, the idea that bishops could be replaced by elders became the norm, especially with the dissolution of the Anglican Church by Parliament. This idea not only dealt with new religious ideas but also reflected the importance of Parliament during this time. Without a king, Cromwell and the military were left to figure out how Parliament would operate. This included the responsibilities of Parliament, how MPs would be elected, and who would be allowed to elect them. Another group that reflected alternate views on how to organize religion in England was the Independents. The Independents believed that each Church should govern itself independently from all others, and would only contact other churches if they desired to. This represents a huge gap in the ideas with groups like the Covenanters and English Puritans.

  20. The authors of these text are for reforming either the church or government. The first text written in 1643, is an agreement between England, Scotland, and Ireland about reforming the Church to Puritan beliefs and removing anything relating to the Catholic religion. It also mentions preserving the rights of Parliament while also not diminishing the King’s power. The second text from 1647 is at first a draft by Levellers to speak of the people’s right to freedom from Parliament and the crown, and that Parliament members should be limited on how long they serve as well as other changes of Parliament being made. The second part of the second text is record of a debate between Ireton and Rainsborough with Cromwell speaking towards the end, and the purpose of the debate was discussing the people’s right to vote in elections for Parliament. The third text from 1653 is a government law which touches upon the establishment of the position of Lord Protector of the Commonwealth which has the powers of a king but is non-hereditary and the position is decided by election. All three texts seek reformation in either the church or government of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

    The variety of positions reflect that many people have different ideas on what should be done to the government but are settled on the fact that change is necessary. The people want changes to Parliament and also want the right to vote in elections. It should be the people who decide who are in power. Currently in England people are unhappy with Parliament and/or the crown and want to establish change. By the third text the king has been executed so the role of Lord Protector has been made to fill the role of king without reestablishing a monarchy. The basis of English society should be a democracy so that England can change from a monarchy to a republic and the people’s votes matter. By establishing a republic, the people can secure their freedom and peace by electing officials who will uphold their rights.

  21. The first document, “The Solemn League and Covenant” was most likely written by Scottish ministers, in an attempt to unite the churches of the British isles. The document, written in 1643, was an agreement that emphasized unity through God and religion through His Word. The document aims to maintain the individual state’s Parliamentary rights but attempts to combine the churches of England, Scotland and Ireland using the ideals of the Scottish Presbyterians. The second document details the Putney Debates and the agreement that came from it. This was written by Levellers, a group of people who aimed to reform the English political system. The document shows the Leveller position as being supportive of more open voting and legislation. The third document, “The Instrument of Government,” is a legal code that gives monarchical power over England, Scotland and Ireland, to a Lord Protector, who takes the place of the king in this system. The first Lord Protector would be Cromwell, who most likely had a very large impact on the writing of this document.
    The Presbyterians, Levellers, and Cromwellians reflect the Puritan concerns about church and state in these three documents by advocating for a more Democratic Republic without corruption. The Puritans also hope to have a purified church alongside the state, which is shown in the first text. The Presbyterians write out a detailed system of rules that the unified church must follow as to not invade the political sphere with religious thought. The Levellers attempted to improve their democracy by promoting the rights of the individual in making Parliamentary decisions. The second document shows this Puritan ideal through the Putney Debates. The Cromwellians further the Puritan goal by writing “The Instrument of Government,” because the document includes specific rules for the Lord Protector. This is much more Republican than the previous monarchy because the Lord Protector, while he does have many of the same powers as the king, is limited by this constitution-like document. The Presbyterians, Levellers, and Cromwellians all push for a more Puritan and Republican religious and political society through these three documents.

  22. All three of these documents give great insight to England post the execution of King Charles and reflects the views of an ever growing Republican movement in England. The first document is a document issued by the House of Commons. It is an agreement to defend the Churches of England, Ireland, and Scotland against all attacks on their religions. It also ensures the right of parliament to defend the King’s person and majesty. The next article is an article that in the first part talks about an act that says that the people should elected the next parliament and then the second part of the document is a debate over whether or not that should be allowed. The debate is between two men named Rainsborough and Ireton. The final document is a section of a document issued by Parliament disposing of the Monarchy completely. The document institutes a Lord Protector of the Realm of England and explains how the Lord Protector and Parliament should work together to run the country. It gives specific powers to Parliament as well like instituting and enacting taxes for example. This final document gives the best insight to England at that time in its history.

    The main concern between all three of the texts is a concern for a more democratic form of government. This has to do with the fears that arose during the time of King Charles and the negative view of the monarchy. The first document gives an example in section 2 when it calls for all three churches to work to eradicate popery. This means eradicating all forms of church hierarchy which reflects the growing fear of monarchical power and yearning for a more democratic type of authority even in religion. In the second Document Rainsborough argues that all Englishmen have a right to vote for their parliament just based on the fact that they are Englishmen. This also shows a more democratic ideal. The final document is the most radical in terms of democracy in England. This document essentially makes parliament a legislative and judicial body with some power over the army, power to make laws and raise taxes, and even power to punish those who rise against them. Meanwhile the Lord Protector is enacted somewhat as the executive person of the new English government who all decisions of parliament run through. This is an attempt to fix what people saw as wrong with English society at the time. All three of these documents give great insight to the ideas of English government at the time.

  23. The first text that was analyzed, “Solemn League and Covenant”, was written in 1643, has an unknown author, and was an agreement between the English, the Scottish, and the Irish. The agreement is attempting to protect reformed churches. The second group of texts that was analyzed, “An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate”, features two separate texts, both of which are primary sources. “An Agreement of the People”, written by Levellers in late October 1647, made a declaration of principles and practices that a democratic government should adopt. The Levellers declared that voting for Parliament should occur every two years and that everyone is equal under the law, among other things. The “Putney Debate” was a debate that occurred in October 1647. This text is an account from the Putney debate, featuring a discussion among Levellers about the reseating of Parliament. The Levellers felt that Parliament needed to more fairly represent the people. The last text that was analyzed, “The Instrument of Government”, was written on December 16, 1653 and does not specify an author. This text is a primary source, as it is the document that established the position of Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. It established rules and practices of this new government, including that the Lord Protector was an elected position that was non-hereditary; much different from the position of a traditional monarch.

    There seems to be common ground among Presbyterians, Cromwellians, and Levellers, which is made evident through these texts. It seems that all of these groups are pushing for a more democratic form of government in which every citizen can vote, every citizen is equal under law, and in which there is fair representation. This is made very clear through the legal document, “The Instrument of Government”, which establishes the position of Lord Protector, a non-monarchical ruler. Furthermore, this text establishes a basis of religious toleration, which was revolutionary for a legal document of its time. A looming problem in England throughout time was the development of Puritans, breaking away from the Catholic Church, and their disagreement with the power of a monarch. Citizens were also calling for the dissolution of the current Parliament as there was no formal election process and the same individuals could have power for extended periods of time. Citizens were beginning to view this as a corrupt practice, and calling for equal elections and equal representation. It appears as if the basis of English society to secure peace and freedom would be to begin to listen to the ideas of those who are calling for reform. Citizens were getting seemingly more comfortable with voicing their opinions even if they would receive backlash, and this led to social upheaval and uprise. If the government did not get on board, it would continue to face more resentment and uprising from citizens. With many like-minded people seeking further reform, these texts established a pattern of England beginning to secure the peace and freedom of the people through establishing a more democratic state.

  24. The authors of the first text were the members of the House of Commons in 1643. They were likely highly educated members of society who could make political contributions. The text type is a legal decree. The authors published these texts as a measure to unify the three kingdoms of Ireland, England, and Scotland, especially in the midst of a potential Irish rebellion. The second document was penned by Levelers. Although the actual authors are unknown, civilians Maximillian Petty and John Wildman later defended the contents of the document. The document is an official decree, though it is not a legal one because it rebukes the current legal administrators in England (parliament). The text argues that the current election system in parliament is unfair, and lists a variety of necessary reforms. It also argues that the English government should be for the people, and not solely represent the narrow interests of the English elite. The third text is an official legal decree on behalf of the commonwealth of England, Ireland, and Scotland. It was drafted by Major-General John Lambert in the year 1653. The text argues for major reformations in the English government, including that leaders should be elected and not chosen based on hereditary factors.

    The first document reflects a Presbyterian outlook of the relationship of church and state. The implications of the text were that the English government would adopt a Presbyterian governance, which included Erastian ideology (increased government authority in church happenings, the church itself does not have the power to excommunicate someone, only the government can do this), a desire to rid the church of bishops and the prayer book, and an increased emphasis on anti-Catholicism. According to the authors of this document, a Presbyterian overhaul would be the most effective method to vanquish an Irish uprising, and further unify the Scotish and English kingdoms. The second document, following Leveler ideologies, posits that a total reformation of government is needed to better represent the English people. They argue that the amount of deputies that represent each county or borough should mirror the number of people that live there, and that elections for parliament need to be more frequent and consistent. Freedom is only possible when government is changing constantly, and at its current state, according to Levelers, the government is too static and unchanging to truly represent English citizens. The final article reflects a Cromwellian approach to government. The argument presented by the text is that monarchs in England have been corrupt for far too long, and there needs to be a system in place that checks monarchical power. So, the text suggests that there be an elected Lord Protector (instead of a queen or king), and that legislation would be crafted in a parliament that met every three years.

  25. These three documents consist of primary sources, that emphasizes the reformation that took place in England after the execution of King Charles. Within the first document “The Solemn League and Covenant”, written by the Covenanters in 1643; this document is an agreement that was passes by the House of Commons. This document addressed an alliance between England, Scotland, and Ireland to co exist under one unified religion and one monarchy. In the second document, “ An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate” written on October 29, 1647, discusses the debate of the Levelers. In this debate, they discuss the neglect and suffering they have endured. They further discuss their longing for a reformed government that represents the needs of all their people. The third document, “ The Instrument of Government” was written in 1653; it discusses the responsibilities and expectations of Oliver Cromwell who holds the new title “Lord Protector”. This title was a way for parliament to limit the powers of monarchy and prevent a dictatorship from happening. Essentially, Cromwell had all of the powers of a King but he was limited in some of those powers by parliament.

    All three of these documents represent the need to shift from a monarchy to a more democratic government that represents all the needs of the people and allows them to have more say in the reform. This allows for their citizens to vote and given more equal representation under the government. This urge for a more democratic society is represented in the document “ An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate”. In this document the levelers feel underrepresented and neglected by the government. The citizens want to have more equal representation and want to have more of a say in the reform of the government. This is also shown in the text “ The Instrument of Government”; this is a movement in the shift from a monarchial society to a democratic one. Cromwell is given the same powers of King and responsibilities but he does not have full control and is under the guidance of parliament and advisors. This is giving the common people a voice in society and limiting dictatorship.

  26. The first document “The Solemn League and Covenant” is a document from the House of Commons written during 1643. The document was essentially an agreement in which the Parliamentarians agreed to support the Scots in creating a Presbyterian religious union between England, Scotland, and Ireland. In return, the Parliamentarians requested support against the Royalist in the English civil war. The Royalist tendencies to use Catholics to prop up their cause(evidenced by their plan to recruit Irish soldiers) helped drive the Parliamentarians to form a closer bond with the Scots. The Scots were keen to use the anarchy in England to advance their Presbyterian views and, by working with parliament, they strengthen their position and make it harder for any other religious group to take over the religion of England. The second document “An agreement of the people and the Putney debates” is a series of texts written in 1647. Unlike the first document, these texts call for the people to have freedom of religion, among other things. The texts also call for equality and general freedoms under the law. These positions are most consistent with what the levelers preached during this time. The texts were ideas most consistent with the views of the levelers.The levelers were a group who saw overarching government control on things like religion and inequality under the law to be counterproductive to a prosperous nation. The levelers believed that personal freedom was essential to making the nation more successful. The third document “Instructions of Government” is a primary source document written by the levelers. It is focused on setting up the position of Lord Protector. The Lord Protector would essentially act as a ‘king’ and have many monarchical powers but would be a part of a Republic rather than a monarchy. The Lord Protector, for example, would have the power to conduct foreign policy and make treaties. Additionally, the Lord Protector would have control over England, Scotland, and Ireland.

    The first document and third document most likely worried Puritans the most. Puritans cared about the ability to freely express their religion, but a Lord Protector or closer union with Scotland threatens that ability. The Lord Protector especially could enforce whatever religious view he wanted on them. This most likely troubles them the most because of how similar Oliver Cromwell’s position(the first LP) is to that of a king.

  27. The three articles in discussion are “The Solemn League and Covenant”, circa 1643, “An agreement of the People and the Putney Debate”, circa 1647, and “The instrument of Government”, circa 1653. The first of these documents is a compromise among the English, Irish, and Scottish, which establishes a consistency of practices among the reformed churches. The authors can be suspected of Scottish alliances due to its specification of the Scottish church. The second text is most likely written by a group known as the levelers, and creates a document, nearly constitutional in appearance, that discusses government structure, especially pertaining to parliament, in which case it calls for a parliament that supports the working class/common person, instead of the elite and nobility as It had done. The final document is written by Major General John Lambert, and it was a constitution written for the general public, or “commonwealth” of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The document replaces the structure of Kings, Lords, and the feudal like system in place, with a more parliament leaning government.

    All three texts discuss the involvement of puritan values in the state. However the first texts directly discuss the separation of powers, and the levelers document goes as far S to describe their concerns with voting and the restrictions made, as they believe in the power of the commonwealth. This shift would be more democratic in nature. However, Cromwell’s appointment to Lord Protector might actually hinder this cause, as it seems to overrule even the monarchy, itself.

  28. In the first text named, “The Solemn League and Covenant” can be identified as written by the House of Commons in 1643 and is a legal document. This document regarded was written and aimed directly at the churches of the Scottish, Irish, and English around the time the English Civil War commenced. The main purpose of this legal action was to enforce a treaty between each country’s respective Parliament in order to protect the reformed churches of England and Scotland. “An agreement of the people and the Putney Debate” was written in 1643 from a book authored by Levellers as part of the army’s general council. This states that there should be greater representation in Parliament for all classes of England and all English citizens should have the right to vote for members of Parliament. Furthermore, it is highlighted that the English Parliament should assemble more frequently. In 1653, the final text was a legislative document written by Parliament post-Civil War called “Instrument of Government.” In this legal document, the English Parliament attempted to strive for a greater democracy through the establishment of a lord protector is presented with rules that apply to him in addition to the rules of Parliament.

    Based off of these texts, England seems to favor a Puritan approach to dealing with the government and the church at the time. For example, many wished to keep the current ways of the church of England as it was being run, but this created conflict because the people also looked to separate church from state. Consistent with Puritan beliefs, many English people desired greater changes within Parliament such as increased representation for those of the common class such as the Levellers. The idea of the “Lord Protector” to oversee Parliament was at first thought to be a good idea, but could potentially become problematic because as stated in the third text, the Lord Protector is now capable of having greater power than the king. The Puritan view emphasized a shift of power from the king to Parliament where they now had the power and control to oversee the military and manage how the country’s funds were spent in addition to paying for wars with limited money.

  29. The first source, “Solemn League and Covenant,” was written on September 25th of 1643. This document was a formal agreement created by a group of people known as the Scottish Covenanters, these people were from all walks of life; “noblemen, barons, knights, gentlemen, citizens, burgesses, ministers of the Gospel, and commons of all sorts in the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland”. They hoped to unite England, Scotland and Ireland under one king again. Not only did they hope to have a single magistrate, they also hoped to unite under the same religion with a prebytarian-parliamentary government. This document was signed by Charles II. The second source, “An Agreement of the People and the Putney Debate,” had two sections, both written in 1647. The first section was written by army agitators and political levelers. “The Agreement of the People” stated that all men with English birthright should get the right to elect their parliament. The second section of the text is the “Putney Debate.” On the side of this debate was Oliver Cromwell and his son in law Henry Ireton; on the Leveler side was Rainsborough who Colonel in the army. They debated over the idea of voting rights for the common man. The final text, “The Instrument of Government,” is a legal constitution written and passed by Cromwell’s parliament in 1653. This document established Cromwell as the ‘Lord Protector’ of England and essentially gave him as much power, if not more, than that of a King.

    In these sources Presbytarian, Cromwellian and Leveler positions are all presented, these positions show puritan concerns about Church and State. The first text shows the Presbytarian viewpoint, it shows the puritan belief of the need to purify the church and state, however it also shows the moderate puritan perspective that separating from the King and Church of England is too far and heresy. The need to purify is shown when the Covenanters claim “and because these kingdoms are guilty of many sins and provocations against God, and His Son Jesus Christ, as is too manifest by our present distresses and dangers, the fruits thereof: we profess and declare, before God and the world, our unfeigned desire to be humbled for our own sins, and for the sins of these kingdoms.” Royalist loyalty is seen in their proclamation of the need for a King and in the fact that Charles II signed the Solemn League and Covenant, Charles I’s son. Leveler ideas are presented in the second text, the idea of suffrage for the common man can be compared to the purtian ideology of scripture being available for the common person, both want privileges and rights to be given to all regardless of a title. Finally the Cromwellian ideology in “The Instrument of Government ” demonstrates purtitan concern for Catholic influence in England. This document is blatently anti-catholic when it takes away the right to vote or serve in Parliament if one is of the Roman Catholic faith. This document then goes on to state “That such as profess faith in God by Jesus Christ (though differing in judgment from the doctrine, worship or discipline publicly held forth) shall not be restrained from…provided this liberty be not extended to Popery or Prelacy.” Some of the problems in England included the debate on whether or not there should be a King and the political unrest showed that Parliament was out of touch with the common person. The “Solemn League and Covenant” attempted to fix the first problem by united England, Scotland and Ireland under Charles II, they were unsuccessful to Cromwell and his military forces. The Covenanters believed a monarch and a prebytarian parliament would be best to secure peace and freedom. “The Agreement of the People” claimed that the best way for peace and freedom would be to allow the common man to vote and therefore eliminate the problem of the government being out of touch with the people.

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