Restoration Text Discussion

Respond to the following sets of questions (each with a 8 sentence, minimum, answer) below:

-Who were the authors of these texts (make reasoned speculations)? What kind of people were they (status, identity, etc.)? When were these texts written? What kind of texts are they (e.g. diary? pamphlet? law code? secondary scholarly source?)? What are each of these texts “doing” (What are these texts describing? What are these texts arguing? Why would the author write these texts?)?

-How do the issues of monarchical prerogative and succession reveal changes in the English monarchy? What is the relationship between crown and parliament? What are the tensions in English society?

-Compare the theological motifs between Bunyan’s Autobiography and Tillotson’s sermon. What are the issues they seem to be grappling with in describing the topics of salvation and scripture? What might be some of the background issues they are responding to?

28 thoughts on “Restoration Text Discussion

  1. The first text,“The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” is a script of a speech given by Charles II in 1673. It is a primary source. In this speech he claims to have been “forced” into war and requests parliament to provide him with a sufficient amount of funds to go to war. In return, parliament requests that he remain committed to true Protestant religion. The second text, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners,” was written by John Bunyan in 1666. It is a primary source. John Buyan was a famous nonconformist who was thrown in jail for his preaching and writing. While in jail he wrote Pilgrim’s Progress, a book that described his Puritan views. This text in particular is an excerpt from his autobiography Grace Abounding, which he also wrote while in prison. In the excerpt, he discusses his ongoing conflict with God’s love for him. The third text, “Sermon CXXI,” is a sermon given by John Tillotson in the 1670s. It is a primary source. In this text he describes the ways a man should worship God in order to become a Son of God.

    “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers” reveals King Charles II’s plea to parliament for more money. He needs this additional money to support the country’s ongoing war. Several years prior, the king’s request would have been a formality that may have not even occurred. However, now the king must rely on parliament to grant his request because of the decline in the power of the monarchy. At this point in time, parliament has been gaining power, even with the reinstallment of the king.

    In “Sermon CXXI,” Titllotson claims that as long as one follows God and is a true Christian, then he will be a “Son of God”. In his sermon he quotes St. Paul who said, “As many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are sons of God,” meaning that as long as one is a faithful, consistently practicing Christian, they are thought well of in the eyes of God. In “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners,” Bunyan describes his hardship with figuring out if one has truly become God’s son or not. He doubts his faith by stating, “for I could not think that I had faith, or that there should be a word for me to act faith on…”. He continues to question God’s will when he asks, “Whether the blood of Christ was sufficient to save [his] soul?” As a Puritan, Bunyan had a hard time connecting to his faith, especially when given the label of a nonconformist.

  2. The first text is a speech that is written by Charles II addressing the Commons in regards to religious toleration to Catholics and all non-protestants. King Charles goes on to clarify that he is not supporting Catholics or as he refers to them in the texts, “papists”. However, he stands by his decision to be more tolerant, it is important to him in this address that people do not take his toleration of them to mean that he is encouraging the religion or supporting them. This is because many Protestants of the time would be displeased with the King’s decisions to tolerate Catholics after all the struggling and fighting that existed in society in order to make way for reforms, which highlights the strife between the King and English society. There are also letters from the people in this document on which the people are thanking the sovereign for the clarification, and that they are happy that the Protestant religion will remain in power despite toleration of other religions.
    The second text it is written by John Bunyan and is about his own personal relationship and struggle with his religion. Throughout the work he makes many analogies about his relationship with religion and his thoughts on salvation. It is when he is walking in a field that he compares the temptations of sins and his own salvation to chains being around his legs like they are holding him down and back from his relationship with God. It is the freeing and the releasing from them chains that now John can live in a more “righteous” way. The background issue of this is what he talks about the double standards of religion, and he is just not convince that someone like him can be saved, he mentions that he is very fearful and ridden with guilt.
    The last text is by John Tillotson, and is a sermon. Just like the last work, by John Bunyan, this text is talking about salvation. He also addresses that people are not perfect and that they are filled with wrongdoings. Though, it is his belief that God knows all of this and is willing to save those who ask regardless. People need to be willing to put in the work and to do what the gospel says to, which in return will lead them to being saved. This sermon would be very reassuring to someone like Bunyan who is concerned about his own salvation and if it is even possible, since we are all sinners. Tillotson goes on to state that God more or less absorbs our sins and that we are indebted to him as his servants. These texts might be responding to people’s concerns about salvation and their own relationship with God, because many people truly believed that if they were not saved by got then they would live their after lives in eternal hell.

  3. The first text “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers” features numerous primary sources on various subjects regarding toleration and royal vs. parliamentary authority. The first source from February 5th, 1673 is a speech from Charles II to the House of Commons on his Declaration of Indulgence, which promised broad toleration to Roman Catholics and more radical Protestants. Included also are responses from the House of Commons and Charles’ rebuttals. Included also is a speech from James II on November 9th, 1685 which describes the necessity of a larger standing army in response to the numerous rebellions against his reign. Next, there are numerous sources about the various plots that are used as justification for a tighter grip on religious affairs and against toleration. The next text is a series of excerpts from the autobiography “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners” (1666) by the writer John Bunyan. In these excerpts, Bunyan describes the doubts that he had about his sins and references ideas of original sin and Christ’s ability to save him from the sin that is inherently in him. The final text, “Sermon CXXI”, written sometime in the 1670s is a sermon by Archbishop of Canterbury John Tillotson. In this sermon, Tillotson also references the death of Jesus Christ as washing away the original sin but also explains that Christ should be an example that Christians should follow in the footsteps of.
    At the very beginning of Charles II’s rule we see Parliament beginning to threaten the royal prerogative in their resistance to the Declaration of Indulgence. In the Declaration of Indulgence and his defense of it, Charles claims that toleration is necessary for creating peace at home while England wages war against the Dutch in Europe. However, Parliament swiftly shuts down the declaration, claiming that the monarch doesn’t actually have the power to change ecclesiastical penal laws. Fighting back, Charles responds by claiming that because his ancestors had the power to do this, he should too. Parliament responds by saying that Charles is wrong and that previous monarchs did not actually have that power. This argument between Charles and Parliament shows the growing tension between the monarchy and Parliament and the continuation of ideas from the Civil War about Parliament having powers independent from the king. We also see this tension in James II’s petition for a larger standing army, something that previous monarchs would not have had to ask for from Parliament. In addition to tension between Parliament and the monarchy, we also see tension in society and among the people with the various plots that generated terror during the Later Tudor period. One example is the Rye House Plot, which planned for the assassination of Charles II and the reestablishment of a Puritan regime like Oliver’s. This threat displays tension in society as it plays on the fear of Puritans that developed as a result of the chaos of the Civil Wars.
    In Bunyan’s autobiography and Tillotson’s sermon, both figures reference original sin and the influence of Christ’s sacrifice as a mechanism that saved humanity. For Bunyan, he felt doubtful about his own faith due to the suggestion that his prayers would do nothing. This might be a reference to the topic of toleration, and the pressure that he had to convert because the Church of England claimed that only being Anglican could save him. However, Bunyan uses Christ’s sacrifice as reasoning that his prayers would work, because his sin was washed away in the eyes of God. In his sermon, Tillotson also idealizes Christ’s sacrifice but uses it to suggest that the people of England should imitate Christ and follow in his footsteps. As the Archbishop of Canterbury, Tillotson was most likely using this device to entice dissenters back into the Church of England. Tillotson does this by suggesting that the closest way to imitate Christ is to practice in the Anglican Church. The arguments of Bunyan and Tillotson highlight the still relevant scriptural persuasion that was used to convince and appeal to people.

  4. The texts I was tasked with reading for this blog post were: “The succession crisis and the dispensing and suspending powers” (1673), “Grace abounding to the chief sinners” (1666), and “Sermon CXXI”. The first text is a speech given by Charles II which is a primary source. This speech is about Charles pleading for money to lead the war and parliaments demand that he stay true to protestant religion. The second text is written by John Bunyan. This text references Johns sin and how he will be protected from his past sin through Christ. The last text was written by John Tillotson who was the Archbishop of Canterbury. This text talks about how Christ is a role model and people should try to follow in the footsteps of Jesus Christ.
    The first text, “The succession of crisis and the dispensing and suspending powers”, reveals the main problem between the Monarch and Parliament. The main issue is the money England needs to declare war on opponents. The money parliament gives to the King for war time was originally always given. Now that Parliament has the right to say no to this, many problems have occured. Charles believes that he has the right to make the laws and decide how to run England as a country. He does not agree with giving parliament the power to overpower him. Charles wants the power to change penal laws. When parliament disagrees, this is where the problems between Monarch and parliament begin.
    The similarities between the “Grace abounding to the chief sinners” and “Sermon CXXI” start with the reference of original sin. Tillotson talks about how people should emulate Christ and try to follow in Christ’s footsteps. Tillotson believes that the true way to follow Christ is to practice the Abglican Church. In the first text, Bunyan doubts his own faith because he believes that his prayers do not mean anything. This would mean that the Anglican Church would be the only way to save him. Both these texts persuade people to follow the Anglican church by embellishing its importance.

  5. The first text “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers” is a secondary source comprised of a collection of primary sources concerning both which degree England should be religiously tolerant and who holds the authority in conflicts between the King and Parliament. Within this collection we see Charles II’s presentation to Parliament about his new laws creating a more widespread religious toleration in England, as well as a presentation to Parliament by James II pleading for a larger standing army in order to quell rebellions against his reign, and finally multiple different cases of arguments against religious toleration. The second text, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners” written in 1666 by famous independent John Bunyan. In this text, Bunyan looks at the nature of sin in man and questions the ability of Christ to save him from the original sin which is present within him. The final text, “Sermon CXXI” is an excerpt from a sermon by John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury at the time. In this section of his sermon, Tillotson explains how Christ’s death freed man of original sin and how Christians should strive to live their lives as similar to Christ as possible.

    The first text did the best job in explaining the Monarchal prerogative of the 17th century, control. In this I mean by trying to attain power to lay down laws concerning religion, as Charles did, or in order to attain the funds to strengthen the Royal Army, as James did. This revealed significant changes in the English monarchy, now without absolute power they had to go through Parliament in order to attain the funds to do as they would like. The relationship between the Crown and Parliament had been completely flipped on its side, with the Crown no longer in complete power and now having to use Parliament as a legislative body to attain his power. Parliament now had the power to control as they would like, If the King wanted something, it would not work if Parliament was not willing to approve of the idea. This creates extreme tension between the two bodies, as the Crown never consented to giving Parliament this control, yet they have lost it. This now leads to massive tension between the King and Parliament, and those who subscribed to the belief of the Divine Right of Kings, followed Charles, and those who were more Puritan followed and supported a Parliamentary rule, budding with Puritan ideals as was the case under Oliver Cromwell.

    In both Bunyan’s writings and Tillotson’s sermon they reference a very important event contributing to the logic of Christians, the sacrifice of Jesus Christ and the nature of original sin. Bunyan struggles to grasp the ideal that without original sin being washed away his prayers would have no meaning and fall upon deaf ears. However, Bunyan comes to the conclusion that Christ’s sacrifice did wash away the sins of man, and therefore, his prayers do meet the ears of god. In a way Tillotson’s sermon connected in a very similar way at a surface level, saying how Christ’s sacrifice was the way for him to be selfless and think about man while washing away all the sins of man. However, by saying this Tillotson clearly was directing this at Puritans, feeling as if he was telling them to practice selflessness and reunite the English empire under a completely Anglican head.

  6. The first text was written in 1673. It describes a dialogue between King Charles II and members of Parliament. They are debating a proposed religious law. The second text was written by John Bunyan in 1666. It appears to be some sort of manifesto or constitution as it outlines a variety of different points of emphasis. It explains the relationship between sinners and God. The final text was written by John Tillotson during the 1670s. It is the transcript of a sermon given by him. It explains that God does not expect perfection from humans.

    The monarchy is no longer in favor of staying out of a state religion. The pendulum swings back and the Church of England is officially established. The question that still remains is over how much power the monarch should have. Given this, the relationship between Parliament and the Crown is changing. There is growth in an opposition and factions, they no longer rubberstamp the will of the king. Moreover, England’s role in the world is changing as they are becoming more important. This causes tensions to occur in England. This is in addition to the tensions caused by England returning to a state religion.

    The two texts take different approaches to the relationship between sinners and God. Tillostson argues that God does not expect perfection from humans. Bunyan argues that sinners can and should ask for forgiveness, no matter their sin. They both are arguing in favor of salvation and that it is possible for normal people. The arguments made in these texts are likely a product of the era they are living in. England had just endured a tumultuous period with many different religious groups competing for legitimacy. These men took it upon themselves to give their point of view. Their goal was to define what they thought was right and set the record straight.

  7. The first text, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers” is a secondary source comprised of multiple primary sources. Within the document there is a speech given by Charles II to Parliament concerning the expansion of religious toleration in England, and a speech by James II asking for a larger army in order to suppress rebellions against the crown. Also in the document were cases against the expansion of religious toleration. The second text, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners” was written by John Bunyan in 1666. Bunyan seems to be fleshing out some of his own personal religious issues, especially the issue of the original sin and whether or not man can be truly saved. The final text, “Sermon CXXI,” was written by John Tillotson, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Tillitson discusses how Christ died for man’s sins and how we must lead our lives the way Christ did.

    The series of primary source documents in the first text provide helpful insight into the fight over the power of the King. The two speeches given by Charles II and James II are clear indicators that the power dynamics between the crown and Parliament has shifted after the Civil War. This new power struggle creates a clear division as the King feels they have the ‘Divine Right to Rule” but now must answer to Parliament. The division did not only affect politicians but created tension in everyday English life. Puritans wanted Parliamentary rule while the more conservative backed the Monarchy.

    Both Bunyan and Tillotson reference the defining moment in Christianity, when Christ died in order to absolve man of his sins. Both men seem to agree that the only true way to worship Christ is the Anglican Church. Bunyan doubts his own faith, believing that his prayers do not mean anything. Tillotson emphasizes that everyone should try to live like Christ, and says the only way this can be accomplished is through the Anglican Church. Tillotson would tell Bunyan that his prayers do have value as long as he is a part of the Anglican Church and that leading a Christ-like lifestyle will absolve him of the original sin.

  8. King Charles II delivers a speech in which he details to parliament his somewhat newfound toleration for papists in England in the first source, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers”. This primary source is used to highlight the hinderance that was the disconnect between the English King and his parliament as well as his disconnect with his own society. The English people had continually battled for reforms in a campaign that had instilled a much more anti-papist attitude than would be portrayed through Charles’ reform. Parliament was clearly not satisfied with their king, as displayed within their rebuttals that are also included within this source. Next, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners”, is dated back to 1666 and contributed to a man named John Bunyan. Bunyan goes on to detail his newfound commitment to his religion, as well as detail his past sin and missteps in his religion. The intent of this primary source seems to be to highlight the viewpoint of someone who was scared of their religion still. Due to the double standards Bunyan saw within religion at the time, he didn’t think someone like him was going to reach salvation and he struggles with these thoughts throughout this text. Finally, John Tillotson delivers a sermon as acting Archbishop of Canterbury. Tillotson is not shy in sharing his beliefs and detailing the salvation Christ has to offer. He finds particular motivation in the story of Original Sin, and sees Christ’s sacrifice then as admirable and worth any converts. Ultimately, Tillotson hopes to deliver the message to his followers to strive to live like Christ, being unselfish acting as a major part.

    As most likely best seen in the direct interactions between parliament and Charles II detailed in the first document, tensions between parliament and the King were extremely high and now that the King must come to them for a request, they have the power for what seems like a rare moment in English monarch history. Parliament chooses to utilize their newfound power of refusing funds and unsurprisingly this greatly upsets the King, furthering the tensions between the two sects. The document involving James II seems to further establish this divide between the two as, much like Charles, James is unhappy with the fact that although the king has been reestablished in England, parliament has more power than ever before and is showing their ability to strategically use it to their advantage. These tensions reached beyond government and into English society as well. It seemed that while the majority of Puritans backed parliament, who were most likely still weary due to their experiences throughout the civil war, and the more conservative members of English society agreed with the monarchy and how they wished to run the government, in a manner that allowed them utmost control over legislation and funds. The intensity of the divide between parliament and the monarch at the time would lead most to believe that a solution to their rift was not likely anytime soon.

    The first, and largest difference between the two writers, Tillotson and Bunyan, is that Tillotson is an actively participating Christian while Bunyan is a participating, yet struggling Puritan. Tillotson raves about God’s will and the sacrifice of Christ giving himself up for man. Tillotson firmly believes and preaches that if one follows in the light of God and lives in a way that God would approve, then they are a good Christian and will read the benefits that come with being so. To Tillotson, everyone is God’s son mostly due to Christ’s sacrifice. On the other hand, Bunyan struggles with this concept as a Puritan on whether he is truly God’s son or not. As Bunyan reflects upon his past woes he seems to reach the unfortunate conclusion internally that his prayers may mean nothing towards his salvation. Another important thing to note is that Tillotson’s mood is upbeat and inspirational throughout his sermon, while Bunyan is consistently downtrodden in his writing about his faith and himself. This accurately depicts the role religion played in the lives of people during that time. Although, Tillotson was likely of a higher status than Bunyan in society, their reflective moods dependent on their fait is consistent of English citizens of the time. Hell was a concept that people like Bunyan likely feared if not brought to salvation before their death and this fear unfortunately often translated into frequent moods as Bunyan displays in his writing.

  9. The first text is a correspondence between King Charles and parliament who represent the people. It discusses the activities of the king as parliament views them through various back and forth speeches. Though the exact author is unknown it can be concluded that it for the King it is either himself or a secretary writing the speeches and for parliament it too would be a chosen transcriptionist or house leader. The second part of the text discusses the matter of the kings succession, the author is unknown, but the text is a primary account. The second text is an autobiography written by John Bunyan, accounting his religious beliefs in regards to sin. And the last text is a sermon by John Tillotson and preaches the mater of salvation heavily. These texts were written in between the years of 1660 and 1690.
    In England at this time most tensions, relationships and issues surround the need of money and financial support. This is due to uphold the domestic peace of English society as well as support the foreign relations the three kingdoms have to one another and the rest of the World. The first text highlights these finical challenges in Charles requests for money. This also illustrates the relationship between king and parliament and the changes that have occurred due to the English Civil Wars. The king can no longer raise his own funds. The long parliament was able to vote and make policy changes require parliamentary approval and within this text you can see these changes at play. You can also the strain that this is causing because it is a new practice of the balancing of English power, which in turn has impacts of English society.
    Both Tillotson and Bunyan are discussing the relationship between sinners and god. The are discussing the ways of salvation and redemption within the Anglican Church. Bunyans text is set up in a series of points of view where Tillotson’s is a sermon that was probably preached. Because Tillotson’s was a sermon you can determined an additional difference between the two texts. Tillotson’s sermon was written to persuade people thoughts so that they too can believe where as Bunyan questioned his beliefs throughout the text.

  10. The first text “the Succession crisis and the dispensing and suspending of powers” (1673) is a speech given by King Charles II, where he explains to parliament his declaration of indulgence. The second text is :Grace abounding to the chief sinners” (1666) written by John Bunyan. Bunyan discusses the idea of sins and specifically his concerns with the concept, going back to original sin in the book of Genesis. The final text “Sermon CXXI” was written by John Tillotson, archbishop of Canterbury, sometime during the 1670s.He claims Christ is the savior and Christians should live in his image. He also discusses sin.

    From the inception of King Charles II, Parliament and the Monarch were at odds regarding the Declaration of Indulgence. Parliament shuts the King’s declaration down. This caused fighting between the two that went back and forth, with Charles II claiming that it was the right of the monarch, while parliament claimed that it was not. This split shows how civil war ideas have continued into the era and how Parliament is having more and more power independent from the king. This continued with James II claim where he wished to keep a larger standing army. These are exemplified in the first text “Succession”. These examples show that Parliament is slowly growing more powerful relative to the king, and the King is feeling more and more threatened. On one hand, the king claims to have a divine right, while on the other parliament wishes to represent the people.

    Both Bunyan and Tillotson reference the passion of Christ. Bunyan understands Christ’s sacrifice as Him suffering for everyone’s sin. This is an important idea for Bunyan as it means it saves everyone from Original Sin, so regardless of one being washed from original sin, God will still hear everyone’s prayers. This means that people’s prayers mean something. Tillotson claims everyone should live in the image of Christ, which would prevent people from sinning. Both of these men claim their ideas only apply within the Anglican Church.

  11. The first document, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” was written by Charles II in 1673. In this document, Charles II was given a speech for parliament discussing the dilemma of religious toleration of Roman Catholics in England. This document also shares a speech from James II discussing his reasoning for why there needs to be a larger army in retaliation to the rebellions occurring. The second document, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinner”, was written by John Bunyan in 1666. This document discusses and examines the religious ideas of original sin and Christ’s ability to save us from this sin. He further delves into his interpretation of the relationship that God has with sinners and how they are able to be forgiven and saved for their sins. The third document, “Sermon CXXI”, written by Archbishop of Canterbury, John Tillotson; discusses how Christ is able to actually save us from our original sin. He also gives his insight on what we can do to live more religious and morally correct lives.

    The issues of monarchial prerogative and succession is shown in the first passage when King Charles II goes to parliament. This represents the immense tension and divide between the king and parliament as a whole in England. During this time parliament was reestablishing their power in England and readopting the monarchial role of King. Therefore, there was a complicated dynamic between the king and parliament to see who possessed the real power. When Charles comes to parliament with reforms and ideas and they decline them, this undermines his authority. He does not want parliament to have sole control and tell him what he can and cannot do.

    Within Bunyan’s autobiography and Tilltson’s sermon, they reference and give insight on the topic of original sin and other religious matters. Tillotson believes that in order to be a good Christian, they need be loyal and practice their faith. If they believe and follow God’s world then that coincides with them being a good Christian. To do this, he believes people need to live as Christ would. Like Tillostson, Bunyan questions the ability for christ to completely exonerate original sin from people and other beliefs that he had. Both Tilltson and Bunyan are discussing their beliefs and insights within the relms of the Anglican Church.

  12. “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers” contains a set of primary sources, including a speech by King Charles ll in 1673 in the first text. Charles aska Parliament for funds in order for him to go to war and accuses the institution of making him go to war in the first place. In a letter of response, the English Parliament wishes that in return for funds, Charles keeps his loyalty to the Protestant cause. Authored by John Bunyan in 1666, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners” is the second text. John Bunyan was a nonconformist English writer and Baptist preacher best remembered as the author of the Christian allegory The Pilgrim’s Progress. In this book, Bunyan preached his Puritan way of thinking. The text is taken from Bunyan’s autobiography, “Grace Abounding” when he describes his constant dispute with himself about the true meaning of the love of God. The third text is a homily recited by John Tillotson in 1670 called “Sermon CXXI.” Tillotson preaches that there is a method of how one should revere God in order to become one of his Sons.

    During this time period, there was a great shift in the relationship between the monarchy and Parliament. As the years in the Stuart Era rolled on, Parliament began to gain more and more power over the crown. For example, as seen in the first text, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” the conflict between the crown and the institution is shown when Charles ll asks Parliament for money in order to fund a war that he claims Parliament “forced” him into. For the first time in history, Parliament has the power to deny the King these funds, however, they agree to grant them to him in return for his promise to remain true to the Protestant religion. This example shows how the power has shifted from the king to Parliament and that the monarch no longer has the authority to spend money as he pleases due to the recent increasing power of Parliament.

    Both Tillotson and Bunyan preach the importance of the ideas of original sin and Jesus’ sacrifice. Both men preach that they believed Christ cleansed all of sin when he sacrificed himself on the cross. Bunyan thinks that original sin must be purged so that prayer has meaning and people are able to know what it means. Bunyan concludes that Jesus’s sacrifice on the cross cleansed all sins and people’s prayers do reach God. Tillotson preached similar ideology such that the crucifiction was an act performed by Christ to rid everyone of sin and a selfess action. Tillotson’s sermon was aimed at the radical Puritans of England, encouraging them to rejoin the Anglican Church as a united whole in the English empire.

  13. There are three articles. The first text,“The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” is a speech by Charles II in 1673. The second is “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners,” written by John Bunyan in 1666. The third text is “Sermon CXXI,” a sermon by John Tillotson around 1670. These are all primary sources. In the first document, Charles II is asking parliament for funds in order to go to war, but Parliament will only do so if Charles maintains a Protestant religion. In the second text, Bunyan describes his Puritan beliefs. In the third text, Tillotson preaches how one should follow God and pray/worship him.

    At this time, there was a lot of change in the English monarchy. There was a sort of “revolution” in England. The monarchy had become more limited. The King had claimed more power than Parliament claimed he had. This created a split in society of whether the king or Parliament had more power. Parliament after the Civil War expressed more power than ever and shows the power it gains as it has its power struggle against the King.

    The two texts of Bunyan and Tollotson both review the connections between those who sin and god. The two varying veiwpoints go like this; Bunyan says that sinning isn’t the end and that people should look and ask for forgiveness. While on the other hand, Tollotson article is a sermon where he preaches about sinning. They both speak on sinning but go different ways about doing it. The point of view reflects the societies they lived in during that time period

  14. The first text is “The succession and the dispensing and suspending Powers” which is a persuasive speech given by Charles II to parliament. This is a first-person account of Charles, who is lobbying to parliament in order to get more money for him to continue his war. Because of the growing powers of Parliament, Charles is at the will of parliament entirely before and he must be prepared to budge on his agenda and negotiate with parliament if he wants his request for money granted. In his speech Charles says that he will continue his policy of toleration towards the “papists”, but that he will not support them or be against the reformation in the church in any way. This is a good use of word choice by Charles by calling them papist, which is a demeaning term, he seems to look down on them but in reality, his policy of toleration is only helping them. On the other hand, though, parliament wants the king to fully support the protestant reformation, and abandon helping the Catholics. The king says he cannot do this because those people supported him and his father. The power of parliament in law making was constantly growing and the king was increasingly having to go and make deals with parliament to get what he wanted, and because of this the power of the king was continuing to shrink.

    The next two articles cover the same topics but with opposing view and outcomes. The second articles, “Grace abounding to the chief of sinners” written by John Bunyan, and the third, “sermon CXXI” written by John Tilloston. The section by Bunyan is more of a personal article in which he discusses he worries and fears about his own personal faith and life, whereas the article by TIlloston Is a sermon which would have been heard by many believers. Because of the nature of a sermon, TIlloston article would obviously be more of a positive outlook with a redemptive ending, whereas Bunyan, who is writing for himself, has more questions about faith and if what he is doing means anything and if he is even a true believer. A pastor would never preach a sermon like Bunyan’s article because no one would feel good leaving the service, and it would only serve to make the common man, who may not have the knowledge or faith as men like Bunyan or Tilloston have, more skeptical about Christianity. Likewise it would not make sense for a personal level writing by Bunyan to simply praise his faith and say that he has made it as a Christian, he want to think about the more difficult questions that he believes Christianity asks him and search deeper about his meaning so he can walk in the faith better. These two articles almost exemplify the inner vs outer struggle of Christians at this time. On the one hand they want to look strong and without doubt on the inside sure that their interpretation of the bible is true and correct, but on the inside, they are just as confused and worried as the common man.

  15. The first text is a series of speeches by Charles II given to the House of Commons. The speeches were given in 1673, in the middle of Charles’ rule. He discusses religion and states his objective to preserve Protestantism in England. He makes this concession to Parliament because he is also requesting funding for a bigger army. The second text, by John Bunyan, was written in 1666. Bunyan discusses his religion and answers spiritual questions that come to him. He questions his own religion and whether he can achieve salvation. He also discusses a significant moment in his life, when he is walking in a field and sees Jesus Christ and God through his soul. He says later that he feels he lived at peace with God for a brief moment. The third text is a sermon by John Tillotson, most likely written in the 1670s. Tillotson believes that as long as one follows God, and works throughout life to become closer to him, that it is possible to be saved.

    Evidenced by the first text, the monarchy has less power than in the past, while Parliament has grown stronger. Because Parliament controls tax policies, and therefore the king’s budget, the king is forced to ask for permission for things such as fighting in wars. Parliament uses this leverage, as in the text, to ask for things in return, such as an agenda less tolerant of Catholicism and more supportive of Protestantism.

    In Bunyan’s text, there is a lot of self-doubt and questioning, where Bunyan is unsure of whether he is good enough to achieve salvation. Tillotson is more assured, and states that following the teachings of the church constitute working towards becoming closer to God, and therefore that following the church will lead to salvation. Both authors believe that the Anglican church is the best way to follow their religion, and this is likely in response to recent conflicts in England regarding which church to follow.

  16. The first text “The succession crisis and the dispensing and suspending powers” is a speech read in 1673 by Charles II addressing parliament, as well as the question of who will come to the thrown after Charles II. Charles II at first needs money for his wars and asking parliament is the only way to get them. The second part of the text is the addressing of the papist threat. Titus Oates initially acted as a catalyst to a spray of catholic rumors that got the whole country worried again. Seeing that James II was in fact a catholic, parliament could only be afraid of what he would do to their country and religion, so they released the expulsion bill in 1680, declaring he cannot become king. As you read through this text, you can sense a heavy shift in power between parliament and the king. Parliament now has more power than the king and if the king needs to get anything done, he must come to them. This power shift is something permanent and will only get worse and worse through the years to come. You could see a threat to the royal prerogative rule by the resistance held against him when he tries to create toleration for the catholics. The second text is “Grace abounding to the chief of sinner” written in 1666 by a puritan named John Bunyan. Bunyan seemed to worry about the impact of his sins and the doubtfulness of what could clear him of his sin. He retraces his thoughts back to ideas of the original sin and the thought of being able to be saved by christ. John worried about the effects of his sins and the effectiveness of his prayer, and he felt like they lead to no reaction from god. The third text is “Sermon CXXI” by archbishop of Canterbury John Tillotson. Tillotson also talks about original sin in his sermon and also talks about how christ should be a character to follow in. When you can compare both Tillotson and Bunyun words you see that Bunyun’s work is much more personal and is much less positive than Tillotson. The overarching theme here is the effects of the anglican church. John Bunyun being a convert of the church is worried about if any effects of his prayers are worried. The temptations of sin inside of him do not go away and he has been told the only true way to reach salvation is through the anglican church, but he feels no effect. Tillotson is preaching to a large audience and try to help reassure and confirm peoples beliefs in his church. He says one way to follow in Christ’s footsteps and be like christ is just to follow the anglican church and its rituals. Christ had died for our sins and he asks us just to follow him through the church. Both are two different approaches of the effects of the anglican church one more negative and the other positive.

  17. The first text, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” is a collection of primary sources that displays a debate between Charles II and Parliament, by giving accounts of speeches given by both sides. These debates originally took place in 1673. While Charles is trying to push aspects of his agenda, such as “indulgence to dissenters,” Parliament makes it very clear that the throne does not have an absolute authority on religious decision any more. The second text, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners,” is a collection of thoughts that was written by Puritan John Bunyan in 1666. Within this document Buynan discusses his insecurities about God’s grace and his ability to be saved, but comes to the conclusion that “the Man Jesus Christ, … is our righteousness and sanctification before God.” The third text, “SERMON CXXI,” written in the 1670s by John Tilloston, the eventual archbishop of Canterbury, describes ways in which people can seek out forgiveness from God and, in a way, can be seen as a response to Bunyan’s concerns.

    The first text clearly shows issues between monarchical prerogative and the power of Parliament. While Charles is anxious to push indulgences and toleration to ease war efforts abroad, Parliament rejects this, stating “that penal statutes in matters ecclestial cannot be suspended but by an Act of Parliament.” This exchange reveals changes in English society by reflecting the evolutions that occurred during the Civil War. After the Divine Right rules by James I and Charles I, the Civil War broke out as many reformers were anxious to give Parliament more power and to put roadblocks into any kind of personal rule by a monarch. The successful execution of Charles I led to the state of the relationship in 1673. Now, instead of the king passing a law without Parliamentary approval, Charles II must consult with, and in most cases listen to, Parliament on most matters. In other words, the English king has become more of a figurehead than ever before, as Parliament has assumed more power that it has ever had.

    Within the second text, Bunyan, despite his heavy doubts, ultimately has faith that he can be saved through his belief in Jesus, since Jesus “is our righteousness and sanctification before God.” Tillotson clearly is less anxious than Bunyan, as he believes that God naturally makes allowances for everyone, stating “God doth not exact from us perfect obedience, and that we should fulfil all righteousness, as he did; he makes allowance for the corruption of our nature, and is pleased to accept of our sincere, though very imperfect obedience.” Tilloston also puts an emphasis on Jesus’ death and the fact that he died for everyone’s sins. In this way, Tilloston agrees with Bunyan in that everyone “who sincerely repent and believe” are saved. He also puts an emphasis on imitating Jesus and using him as the ultimate role model. Overall, these arguments could be responding to the continuous debate over the role God plays in life. With the destruction of the Great Chain of Being, it was probably important for people to express their concerns or questions about God’s role in their lives, and it was important for the Church to answer those questions too.

  18. The first text that was analyzed, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers”, features multiple snippets of a primary source from Charles II. In this speech, Charles II is discussing the degree of toleration for Roman Catholics and Protestants as well as the degree of authority between the King and Parliament. Charles II makes it evident that he does not support these “papists”, but he does support the idea of toleration. The second text that was analyzed, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners,” is a primary source written in 1666 by John Bunyan. John Bunyan writes about his own personal experience with religion. John Bunyan writes about his experience with sin and seeking salvation, which at times was plagued by questioning God’s ability to save him. The third and final text that was analyzed, “Sermon CXXI,” is a primary source written by John Tillotson. John Tillotson, at the height of his career, served as Archbishop of Canterbury. John Tillotson writes about the journey everyone will take to become a “Son of God”. He is professing that as long as people follow in God’s footsteps and strive to be a like image of him, they will be saved. John Tillotson believes that good, practicing Christians will be favorable in the eyes of God.

    As we know from class readings and discussion, it appears as if the English people feel more comfortable having a monarch or sovereign ruler in power. Although the monarchy was dissolved after the execution of Charles I, the Lord Protector position was essentially a monarch. The monarchy was reinstated with Charles II. As the monarchies progressed, it appeared as if Parliament began to gain more power over the monarch. In English society, this shift in power had never been seen before and people had to question if the King or Parliament had more power to make decisions. Tensions between the Crown and Parliament can be seen in Parliament rejecting the Declaration of Indulgence. While Charles II wants to establish toleration to create peace during a war being fought with the Dutch, Parliament claims that Charles II does not have the right to do this. Charles II proclaims that he has this power if previous monarchs di, but Parliament claims that previous monarchs did not have this power. This shows growing tension in English society about the accountability of the King to follow laws, as well as Parliamentary suggestions and decisions. Previously, it appears as if monarchs did not have any places in check. However, Parliament was imposing more checks on monarchs.

    There are many parallels seen between Bunyan’s autobiography and Tillotson’s sermon. Although both men write on similar topics, Bunyan is struggling with his religious beliefs while Tillotson is a practicing Christian who is using his passion for religion to try to bring people back to the Church. Bunyan and Tillotson are both speaking from personal experiences with religion, but Bunyun is writing in an autobiography while Tillotson is likely preaching his sermon. This makes me question Tillotson’s point of view, as he might be speaking from a more positive standpoint in an effort to bring people back to the Church of England. For example, Bunyan discusses his struggle with believing in God’s ability to wash away his original sin. On the other hand, Tillotson is telling the masses that God will save good, practicing Christians. To the people hearing the sermon, this seems to be the bare minimum one can do to receive salvation, and they will likely be inclined to rejoin the Church of England.

  19. The first text, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” is a primary source that was written by Charles II in 1673. This primary source is Charles II speech to Parliament in order to convince them to continue to fund his war. Not only this, but Charles II also discusses how he wishes to continue religious tolerance in England for the papists and all other religions. Also included in this source are rebuttals from the Parliament and Charles II, and through these rebuttals it is evident that Parliament and Charles II are not on the same page and they do not agree on this topic. The second text, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinner”, is a primary source that was written by John Bunyan in 1666. In this text, John Bunyan discusses his past sins and miscues for his religion and how only Christ himself can absolve him of these sins and allow him to achieve salvation, or go to heaven, when he dies. The third text, “Sermon CXXI” is an excerpt from a sermon by John Tillotson, who was the Archbishop of Canterbury. This text was written sometime in the 1670’s, and it discusses how Christ suffered from man’s sin long ago. He claims that all men should follow in Christ’s footsteps and lead a life of salvation and without sin.

    The first text, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” shows interactions between Charles II and Parliament during the time. After the civil war, Charles II and James II both wanted to rule with the belief that they have the “Divine Right to Rule,” but Parliament had other ideas. The monarchs would have to answer to Parliament and work hand in hand with Parliament in order to have a successful government, and this clearly was not the case. Parliament decided to take their newfound power and they reject the king’s request for more funds to supply the war. This naturally caused division throughout the government as well as in English society, since Puritans supported Parliamentary rule while the conservatives supported the King and the crown.

    These two texts both describe the issues with salvation and sin differently as well as the relationship between those who have sinned and Christ himself. Tillotson’s sermon claims that people need to practice their faith regularly and be loyal to Christ himself. He claims that if people follow these guidelines and do not sin then they will be deemed a good Christian and achieve salvation. Bunyan’s text talks about how Christ sacrificing himself absolved all of their sins, which allows him and everyone else’s prayers to be heard by Christ. These two authors talk about their idealogies and beliefs, which are in line with the Anglican Church at the time.

  20. Within “The Succession Crisis” there are a series of texts. Starting with a transcript of a speech to Parliament by King Charles II, while still on the throne a likely court scribe wrote his words as a transcript historical document in 1673. Charles wanted to expand some of his power, and Parliament’s response was also transcribed, telling him he could not do some of the things he wished to do, and criticized his alleged leniency toward dissenters. Following this, there is a transcript of King James II’s speech to an army in 1685. This is a historical transcript, so it is a primary source of the event. James attempts to encourage the army and reassure soldiers that those whom he appointed himself (likely Catholics) were good and loyal fighters. Afterwards there is an anonymous letter or diary entry written in 1685. This account is a secondary source, as it is an opinionated point of view of what was going on. While speaking about the Popish Plot and Oates’ effect on British society, and the suspicion and fear that followed, it can be assumed that the anonymous writer was a Protestant. Then there is a poem including John Dryden’s point of view of the mass’s response to the Popish Plot. He speaks on the great chaos which ensued among the British people. Following the poem there is the House of Lord’s act manuscript, published in 1678-88. This is a historical document which prohibited James’ ascension to the throne and threatened anyone on his side. Just four years following, the next work, a letter from Duke of Ormonde to the Earl of Arran, written in 1683, is there. As a likely Tory, the duke condemns the idea of killing the king. Finally, the last piece is written by a French ambassador to King Louis XIV, written in 1685. This letter gives a primary account of the ambassador’s hearing of the king’s death. Next, the text “Grace Abounding the Chief of Sinners” was written in 1666. This is a transcript of John Bunyan’s sermon, likely written by a follower who was listening. In his sermon, he speaks about his conversion experience of God calling out to him, and encourages people to follow in his footsteps of belief. Finally, there is the text “Sermon CXXI.” This is a transcript of Archbishop John Tillotson’s sermon, taken around the 1670s. Here he speaks to parishioners on how to properly behave like Jesus and be a pious Christian.
    During this time, there were a lot of changes to the English monarchy. Most notably, there were changes of amounts of power which different institutions held. How much influence the throne, Church, or Parliament had were constantly in question. From ruler to ruler succeeding, the acts and levels of strictness would change, sometimes even directly contradicting one another. This lead to high anxiety throughout the different rulings. Between the Crown and Parliament, Charles and Parliament were clearly at odds on a number of topics. Charles repeatedly tried to push the boundaries in regards to his power. Then following, with James in charge, people were often times skeptical of him and what he wanted to enact. In society, people were overwhelmingly anxious of potential plots. There were new ideas and discussions happening throughout society, leading people excited for moving forward, but also wary and tense about possible secret religious alliances of their peers.
    Both Bunyan and Tillotson’s sermons speak on grappling with how to behave most properly as a Christian. They also both were speaking in efforts to influence other people to follow in their footsteps. Considering the context, these men had the English Civil Wars in the back of their heads. These wars largely had to do with a lack of tolerance and failure of people to come together. At the time, people had a fear of sinfulness and also a reluctance to tolerate and understand others with different beliefs. Bunyan encouraged a “my way or the highway” approach to these issues, whereas Tillotson was more understanding in regards to tolerance.

  21. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners is a primary source sermon written in 1666 by John Bunyan, an English writer and Puritan preacher. Bunyan’s autobiography takes on a seriously self-deprecating tone that suggests the unworthiness of man to receive God. The piece by John Tilloston is a sermon and a primary source written likely in the 1670s. Tilloston was the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury from 1691 to 1694. His sermon draws on the might and graciousness of God to appeal for people’s obedience to Him and honor of his religion. Limitation of the Prerogative is a primary source correspondence between the court of King Charles II and Parliament written over the course of 1673 with adjoining pieces from 1678 and 1683. This document calls into question the relationship of the King to his Parliament and questions his powers in “ecclesiastics.”
    The relationship between crown and parliament is reforged under much hope for the future. Charles II encourages Parliament with his dedication to upholding the reformed faith, but there is still tension over the outlining of all of his powers. Charles II must contend with the real power of the Monarchy and they are quick to exhibit their close oversight of his moves. Parliament was victorious in the English Civil War and now must again contend with a Monarchy. This creates tension within the whole of English society which now must again re-approach its relationship to government.
    Bunyan’s autobiography and Tillotson’s sermon take on very different tones. This makes sense given that Bunyan was Puritan and Tilloston was Anglican. While Bunyan’s writing is self-deprecating and suggests the infirmity and pitiful nature of man, Tillotson’s sermon is more suggestive of the duty we all have to serve God. Both pieces, however, make sense for the time in which they find themselves. Bunyan’s piece aims to target those who have severely sinned or in other ways found themselves far removed for God’s presence. In a period following severe religious fragmentation, there were likely to be many people of this sort. Bunyan attempts to reign the back in by appealing to their conscious. Tillotson’s sermon comes off as a much more factual, descriptive account of the state of nature almost as if he is giving a lesson. This is characteristic of a sermon. Tillotson’s sermon is more a reinforcing measure to those already wound up in the Church. It serves as a reminder to serve God for we are “liable and indebted” to His justice. It reiterates that those who do not follow in the “pattern” of Christ face eternal damnation.

  22. The first document “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers” is a collection of secondary source documents. One of those documents is a speech script of Charles II addressing members of parliament. The speech was given due to Charles needing money for his war and parliament withholding it. The second text “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners” is a primary source document written by John Bunyan in 1666. Bunyan, also the writer of “Pilgrims Progress”, talks about his sin and Christ’s ability to save him and mankind overall. The third text “Sermon CXXI” is a primary source douce document written by John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury, sometime in the 1670s. He preaches the merits of living like Christ and seeks to convince his audience of the same.

    In “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers”, The focus of Charles’ speech is to criticize parliament for what he feels is the unjust withholding of money from him. He seeks to assuage parliament’s fears by coming out against the papists after he was accused of granting them “more liberty than other recusants”. He goes on further to pledge to be a supporter of the Protestant faith and his desire to preserve it. Charles’ faith had been a big issue during his reign because of his ties to Catholicism. Charles said all these things because he was cashed strapped at the time in an “expensive and necessary” war. By saying what parliament wants to hear, Charles is hoping to finally get money allocated to pay his cash strapped army. This speech shows how far the English Crown has fallen in power. Charles is forced to grovel to parliament and demonstrates that he is no longer the higher power. This speech represents a change in power and hearkens in a new era where the royals do not have absolute control over England.

    Both Bunyan and Tillotson’s works are focused on Christ and the effect that believing in him can have on them. Bunyan is having a hard time grappling with what effect Christ can have on him. He is doubtful his prayers have any value. Tillotson, on the other hand, takes a different approach. Unlike Bunyan, Tillotson believes that the best way you can live your life is to live it out as Christ-like as you can. He believes that because of the sacrifices of God, living a good life is possible and comes with heavenly rewards. These differing represents the fragmentation of religious beliefs and the blossoming of civil discourse common within this era. Both of these men discussed their opinions within the realm of the Anglican Church.

  23. The first source, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers”, is a primary document outline a speech written by Chalres II in 1673. The speech outlines the Declaration of Indulgence, which covers toleration for Roman Catholics and radical Protestants. The King uses the speech to explain that religious tolerance isn’t an encouragement of religious diversity, but more a promise to be more a more tolerant king. The document also includes responses to Charle’s speech and a Letter from James II about having a standing army to deal with the unreast. The second document, “The Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners” is a primary source written by John Bunyan in 1666. The source is an excerpt from his book Pilgrim’s Progress which outlines his puritan beliefs. The text is also an excerpt from his autobiography. The document covers his relationship with religion and his internal struggles about the facets of religion and salvation. He believes that the ideas of sin and salvation hinders his direct relationship with God and that he doesn’t believe that he should be saved. The last source is a written sermon by John Tillotson. Similar to John Bunyan he is addressing salvation. The sermon covered how people can achieve salvation. He goes on the explain that all people sin and that God knowes this and is willing to save anyone. His belives that people need to be willing to put in the work and to follow the gospel.

    The previous documents reveal that there is an issue about the English Church and how people will perceive how the king determines religious issues. Because of England’s turmoil in recent history, there is a certain amount of unease between the monarchy devoting itself to one sect because of the diversity and political factors that make up England. In previous Blog Post we cover the tensions between Protestants and the inverted logic of puritanism, there a lack of unity between the people, the monarchy, and the parliament. This manifest itself in the unrest or peoples perspective of the monarchy and the conflict between monarchy and parliament which prevents them from accomplishing something. Tillotson covers more issues about trying to show how to achieve salvation through faith. Where as Bunyan struggles more with an internal problem. He ask himself if he has truly achieved being God’s child and questions if he is ever worth of salvation.

  24. The first text is a series of proclamations and letters between Charles II and his Parliament. The correspondences date 1673. The texts are describing a disagreement on the issue of toleration of dissenting religions. Additionally, King Charles II requests funds for war debt, which he is confident that Parliament will grant him. The second text is a religious text written by John Tillotson, who was the Archbishop of Canterbury during Charles II’s reign. It was published some time in the 1670s. The text discusses God, and how he was “content to be substituted as a sacrifice for us.” The third text is a religious text published by John Bunyan. This text was published in 1666. It also discusses matters of salvation and scripture.

    The dialogue between Charles and his Parliament reveal an absolute change since the rule of Charles I, as well as the Cromwellian era. In the reigns prior, the monarch (or the Lord Protector, in Cromwell’s case) essentially had their way with Parliament, and were allowed to act unchecked. Especially during the era of Rump Parliament, Cromwell was allowed to rule as he pleased with his supporters in Parliament. These documents reflect that Parliament has hemmed monarchical power, and that Charles isn’t allowed to rule as the sole sovereign. The issue debated in this exchange is that of toleration of “dissenting” religions—Charles wants to limit religious persecution—whereas Parliament wants to crush any religious opposition. They argue specifically about Charles’ predecessors, and whether or not they had a say in eclesiastical matters. In a letter to the king, Parliament writes “we find ourselves bound in duty to inform your Majesty that penal statutes in matters ecclesiastical can not be suspended but by act of Parliament.” Under previous Stuart reigns, exchanges like this never would have happened.

    According to Bunyan, his sins can not be rectified by anyone, including God. He writes, “That no word of God could help me, that piece of a sentence darted in upon me, My grace is sufficient.” He comes back to this idea of “sufficiency of grace” or the idea that he alone can save himself. He seems to think that God is able to save his soul, but he must put in a good amount of work himself. Tillotson takes an opposite approach, writing that God alone is responsible for salvation. He writes “And as the life of our blessed Saviour had all the perfection that is requisite to an absolute pattern (so that, by considering his temper and spirit, and the actions of his life, we may reform all the vicious inclinations of our minds, and the exorbitances of our passions, and the errors and irregularities of our lives).” The main difference between the two theologians is how much emphasis they place on God in terms of salvation.

  25. The first text “The succession crisis and the dispensing and suspending power” is a collection of primary source documents that were written between Charles II and Parliament in the year 1673. The documents explore the concerns regarding religious toleration within England. This is seen through various speeches that were given by the King. The purpose of the speeches from Charles II was to promise toleration to Roman Catholics and Protestants. The following debates between the two parties are essentially the various rebuttals that were given between the two parties. The second text, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners” was written in 1666 by John Bunyan. Bunyan was a nonconformist and discusses within the text a lot of the personal revelations and problems that he had gone through with his own religious beliefs. The purpose of this text appears to be emphasizing this dispute that he has with himself about his relationship with God. The third text “Sermon CXXI”, was written by John Tillotson in the 1670s and is a sermon given while he was Archbishop of Canterbury. The purpose of the sermon is to illustrate how Christ was a role model for people and how individuals should try and live their life like Jesus Christ.

    Based on the issues of monarchical prerogative and succession it appears to be that there are vast differences in beliefs regarding the role of church and state as well as the differences between the crown and parliament. Within the second document, it becomes clear that there are significant divides between the Crown and Parliament. Additionally, it can be seen through the format of the rebuttals between the King and parliament that these speeches Charles II delivers have the intent of reaching the people. It is clear that the beliefs and agenda of both parties are attempted to be communicated and pushed onto the people to win society on a particular side. Additionally, it becomes clear that the monarchy isn’t interested anymore in staying out of religious discussions. However, as we have learned so far in the class although the King may feel that he has the right to rule and make determinations as such in society there is still a need and dependence on Parliament due to the influence that is had within society and the fact that they are too powerful of a force for Charles II to ignore.

    There are differences between Bunyan’s Autobiography and Tillotson’s sermon. Some of the main differences stem from the fact that Tillotson seems to be much more heavily involved and accepting of his religious beliefs while Bunyan’s personal accounts appeared to be filled with doubt and uncertainty. We see this is in the fact that Tillotson is not only the Archbishop of Canterbury delivering a sermon in this case but by the fact that he fully succeeds himself to christ and projects in front of many people that everyone should try and live their lives like him. In the case of Bunyan, we are provided accounts of a man who is struggling as a Puritan. It is seen that both of the men agree on the Anglican Church. Additionally, both of these discussions from these men appear to be centered around their own personal religious experiences. It can be argued that their religious beliefs are shaped around the environment that they are living in. In the case of the Archbishop, it may be much more beneficial for him to promote and live a more believing and less doubtful life than Bunyan as he is compensated with immense wealth from the church while we learn that Bunyan comes from a very humble background and is, for the most part, a common person in this case.

  26. The first source, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” is discourse between English King Charles II and the House of Commons in 1673. The premise of this text is discussing Charles II’s royal declaration of Indulgence. The royal declaration of indulgence would grant some form of tolerance to dissenters as long as they would only practice in their home. However the Parliament saw this as being too lenient to dissenters and would lead to papist infiltration into society. The second source, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners,” is written by John Bunyan in 1666. John Bunyan was a Puritan preacher who wrote this text during his 12 year imprisonment for religious dissent. His writing shows his god fearing tendency and his devotion to religion. Finally the third source, “Sermon Cxxi. Christ The Author, And Obedience The Condition Of Salvation,” was written in the 1670s by John Tillotson. John Tillotson became the Angelican Archbishop of Canterbury after writing this source. His viewpoint is that God did not create man to be perfect instead he promotes the idea of following in “imperfect obedience.”
    The first source, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers,” demonstrates the new relationship between Crown and Parliament. Previously, the monarch was seen as the absolute monarch and therefore had far more sway over Parliament, only calling them when he/she needed to raise money. However, post English Civil War, it became apparent that Parliament had the power to overthrow the king, therefore making him far more compromising to their beliefs. An example of this is Charles II’s interaction with parliament regarding his declaration of Indulgence. Charles II wants to use indulgences to raise money, as the last amount parliament gave him was insufficient. He believes that allowing indulgences for dissenters has given him a good effect in securing peace while abroad. However he has run out of funds and Parliament is not for toleration of any religion other than the Church of England even with loyalty and practice in one’s own home. Parliament fears that Charles is too sympathetic towards papist and therefore pressures him to rescind the declaration of indulgences. This shows that the tensions within society about a ‘papist threat’ are not absolved yet. This is seen in the part of the text titled “Anonymous Account of the Popish Plot.”
    The second source “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners,” and the third source “Sermon Cxxi. Christ The Author, And Obedience The Condition Of Salvation,” contrast in their discussion of salvation and scripture. The tones of the two essays are polar opposites. John Tillotson sounds confident is his trust in a good christians right to salvation due to Christ’s sacrifice. However, John Bunyan grabbles with whether or not he is one of “God’s Sons” and will achieve salvation. These issues are most likely on outcome of the increasingly different paths of Protestant religious sects regarding predestination and salvation. Those like John Bunyan who are thrown in jail for their religious beliefs are forced to wonder if they are truly right in the eyes of God. Especially with England’s tumultuous religious history, it would be hard to conceptualize that only one group is right in their interpretation of doctrine.

  27. The first text is titled, “The Succession Crisis and the Dispensing and Suspending Powers” is a collection of numerous primary sources on various subjects about toleration and royal vs. parliamentary authority.  The text comes from King Charles II in which he is giving a speech. In the speech he is dispensing powers which means he is giving out pardons. He is primarily giving out pardons to those who previously dissented again the Church of England. This is seen as a potential undermining of the Church of England and Parliament. Parliament feels that it has the power to give out ruling related to religion since the Church no longer has its own courts. This is an issue as the King and Parliament are in debate as to who has ecclesiastical powers over England. Charles also states that he wants to defend the current state of the English Church and that he also will protect people and their properties. In that he is claiming that the King is in control of the law and that he is above it to which Parliament disagrees. Charles also grants the exceptions to the dissenters because the dissenters are Presbyterian Protestants which is the same as the Dutch to which Charles is at war with. The Parliament responds to Charles speech but saying that he does not have the authority to undermine Parliament and the Church of England. They are not happy with Charles II attempts to circumnavigate Parliaments authorities and that Parliament has the final say in these matters. There are many tensions in England also has Parliament does not fully agree with lightening up tensions on dissenters and Roman Catholics. Parliament is especially worried about Jesuits and Papists spreading Catholicism and bringing it back to England. There are also tensions arising from the people and society. There is the Papist Plot which was a plot invented by Titus Oates to spread fear and anti-Catholic sentiments. This need to create a fake plot is an example of tensions and fears in England at the time. There was also the Rye plot which was an actual plot to kill Charles and his brother. This plot was formed by those still loyal to the Commonwealth and Oliver Cromwell. They had the intention of overthrowing the monarchy once again.
    The second text is a primary source document written by John Bunyan and is about his own personal relationship and struggle with his religion. It is titled, “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners” and was written in 1666. In this text Bunyan emphasizes the importance of Christ’s sacrifice for man. Bunyan is worried that a man like him cannot be saved from sin. He is worried that his prayers will not help him and that he carries a lot of guilt due to this. He is concerned as to how a person knows if they are saved or not. He also feels that he is reading conflicted stories in the Bible to which Bunyan cannot understand whether God is forgiving or not. This scares Bunyan and makes him pessimistic towards being saved. Bunyan really wants to know whether or not God loves him back and the conflicting stories make him believe that God is inconsistent in how he views the actions of Bunyan. Eventually Bunyan comes to the conclusion that his righteousness comes down to the actions of Jesus Christ. Bunyan is exhibiting a lot of confusion over how he should act, think, and what to believe. The final text, “Sermon CXXI,” was written by John Tillotson, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Tillotson discusses how Christ died for man’s sins and how we must lead our lives the way Christ did. Tillotson is less negative than Bunyan and emphasizes that everyone should follow Christ in how they live their lives. His text comes across in a much more self-assured manner as he is not questioning the teachings but instead proclaiming a way to follow them. He believes that Christ’s life is a good image and that people should follow his life to reach salvation instead of being like Bunyan and being confused in how to act.

  28. The first of the three texts is “The Succession Crisis and The Dispensing and Suspending of Powers.”. Was written is 1673 by the then monarch King Charles the Second. The text itself is a primary source showing one of Charles II’s speeches to Parliament. This one being about his need for funding in the war he wants to wage. This being one of the major topics the speech talks about the other being religious tolerance. Directed at Papists and other religions in England at the time. The rebuttals from Parliament and Charles II are also present in the text. The second text “Grace Abounding to The Cheif Sinner.”. Once again another primary source this time written by John Buyan in 1666. in this text, John goes over his past and talks about the sins he committed and how Christ himself is the only one who can save him and grant him the salvation he needs when he passes on. The last text “Sermon CXXI” is the shortest of the texts being only an excerpt from one of John Tillotson. Him being the Archbishop of Canterbury sometime in the 1670s. The text speaks of how All men should follow in Christ’s footsteps as he suffered for their sins a long time ago. In order to lead and live a life of salvation and without sin.

    The interactions depicted throughout the first text The Succession Crisis and The Dispensing and Suspending of Powers.”. In the post-civil war era, both Kings Charles II and James II believed they had a “Divine Right to Rule.” Parliament, as shown, had other beliefs. The successful government played out would work by the Monarchs would have to both answer to and work together hand in hand with Parliament. This clearly, however, was not the case in actuality. Instead, Parliament decided given their recently enhanced power to reject the King’s request form war funds. This created a larger divison throughout England in English Society as well and not just the government. As Puritans supported Parliament the more conservative supported the crown.

    The two texts help to describe the varying issues relating to Christ with regards to those who have sinned on top of the issue of salvation, and sin. The Archbishop’s sermon preaches the faith and belief that people need to be loyal to Christ and practice regularly. He claims that salvation is attained by following those guidelines in order to be considered a good Christian. John Bunyan on the other hand talks of Christ’s ultimate sacrifice that washed the sins of man away. This being done so that all of their prayers are heard by Christ. The two men in theses texts with their beliefs and ideologies at the time would be in line with the Anglican Church. As it is the best way to follow their teachings.

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