Later Stuart Text Discussion

Respond to the following sets of questions (each with a 8 sentence, minimum, answer) below:

-Who were the authors of these texts (make reasoned speculations)? What kind of people were they (status, identity, etc.)? When were these texts written? What kind of texts are they (e.g. diary? pamphlet? law code? secondary scholarly source?)? What are each of these texts “doing” (What are these texts describing? What are these texts arguing? Why would the author write these texts?)?

-What do the Sacheverell riots reveal about English politics, society and religion? What were they about and what problems with the revolutionary settlement do they reflect?

-Locke was a radical in his own day and few people would go as far he would, however…What Restoration-Revolution problems was Locke dealing with? How were his accounts seeking to resolve them? In what ways is Locke similar to Hobbes?

25 thoughts on “Later Stuart Text Discussion

  1. The first text, “Sacheverell Trial and Trial related to Sacheverell Riots,” is an excerpt from the book, Sources and Debates in English History: 1485-1714, written by Newton Key and Robert Bucholz. This book is a book written about historical events, making it a secondary scholarly source. This text was published in 2009, but is written about the time period from 1485 to 1714. This text is about the Sacheverell trial and the trials related to the Sacheverell riots. Henry Sacheverell was a clergy member who was put on impeachment trial by the Whig ministry. The text gives the reasons that Sacheverell was impeached in the Articles of Impeachment, 1710. He was later found guilty for his crimes. The next section describes the trial of Daniel Dammarree. He was found guilty and subsequently pardoned by the queen. The second text, “Second Treatise of Government,” was part two of a book published called Two Treatises of Government. It was published in 1689 and was written by John Locke. Focusing on chapter 8-10, these sections concern the beginning of political societies, the purposes of political society and government, and the forms of a commonwealth.
    The Sacheverell riots were a series of attacks by the Tories on the homes and meeting places of dissenters. When dissenters would practice their religion in their various locations, Tories would intrude. This shows political division as the Tories were attacking dissenters, who tended to support the Whig party. Their attacks were religiously motivated however. They were attacking the dissenters for supporting a religion other than the one promoted by the Church of England, not because they were Whigs. The riots occurred because of the sermons preached by Henry Sacheverell. He spoke out against Catholics and nonconformists, while simultaneously attacking the Church of England.
    Locke’s views on the state of nature are important to understanding his political philosophy. He believed that there is a god, but refrained from conforming to a particular religion. Along with this, he believed that this God set natural laws. This belief led to one of his core political beliefs that since one is invested in themselves, and thus society, they are also invested in the government. He wrote that a political society is achieved simply from people “agreeing to unite into one political society”. One way that John Locke and Thomas Hobbes are similar is that they both believed in the doctrine that the people should give the government the power to govern them.

  2. Each of these texts outline various political standpoints during the late 17th century and early 18th century. The first text is a two part secondary scholarly source written by Newton Key and Robert Bucholz. This text outlines the various political and historical events of the time surrounding the trials of Henry Sacheverell and Daniel Dammarree. The trial of Sacheverell should first be understood in order to analyze that of Dammarree’s considering he was a follower of Sacheverell and his chosen actions leading to his trial were due to his belief in Sacheverell. Sacheverell preached against the government to have absolute control over their people, and for the people to give them blind obedience. He went on outlining the fact that this in depth oversight was against the constitution. Sacheverell’s beliefs and sermon resonated with the populous anglican commonwealth, but was in no means received by the whig party. Dammarree was then tried for burning down a Presbyterian meeting house in support of Sacheverell’s claims. The Sacheveller riots like the one that Dammarree was tried and hanged for are consequences of the instability and lack of religious toleration in England during this time. This can be said because they were religiously driven, by different congregation and groups burning and destroying other religious groups meeting houses. However, this is not purely religious because the anglican and presbyterian groups within England were back by different political factions that help power within parliament. Thus resulting in a much greater problems and revealing the continuous revolution of the English government and politics.

    The second text is a primary scholarly law code, in other words a book of guidance on the operations and principles of government. This book was written by John Locke in 1689 analyzing the operations of government, politics, and society at the time while providing commentary and personal feedback on his idea of the way things should be. Locke focuses on two main topic throughout chapters three and four, the state of war, and slavery. However, Locke makes it very clear that though these are different topics and different societal and political issues they are closely connected due to the way in which he defines a state of war, and a mans natural and god given right to be preserved. The first issue a state of war Locke compares this the that of a state of nature, he says that if any man at any time is forced to be under the power and absolute control of another man that he has no been put in a position to defend his own life (including possessions) no matter the cost. This results in essential a concept that could be understood today as the right for on to defend themselves. He says that all men are given this right because it is the law of nature that men should be preserved and thus when an individuals life is threaten a state of war is declared upon him. Meaning that an individual has sought to take another’s life into their own hands and use it at there will thus threatening that individuals liberty. Locke continues this concept into the next chapter saying that due to this in balance of power resulting in an individuals own liberties to be threaten and removed, thus creating a situation where the said persons preservation may be at stake the idea and concept of slavery is invalid, and impossible. Because in slavery a master has the power to determine and control the liberties of another man and can thus in turn decided when a man shall die, which goes against all natural law and complies solely with the state of war descried in chapter 3. Locke however does go on to say that if an individual is to volunteer to work as a servant for an individual and be at their will for a certain amount of time than in this circumstance this as long as the agreement remains true and unbroken this form of servitude is okay. Throughout Lockes explanation he does make a point to differentiate himself and his views from that of Hobbes saying that he unlike Hobbes defines and believes a state of nature and a state of mind to be two different things based on the individuals ability to appeal the law. However, in this statement he is also agreeing with Hobbes in that no matter what all individuals must submit to the law and adhere to what it says and the rights that it provides.

  3. The first text is a secondary account of the trials of two main conspirators in the Sacheverll riots. These riots were riots by Tories attacking the homes and houses of dissenters. These riots were mostly religiously charged as the Tories were loyal to the Anglican Church and as a result were against the churches of the dissenters. The first part of the text details a sermon made by Henry Sacheverell, who was a leader in the Church of England in which he detailed Whigs as adversaries against the Royal family. This sermon leads to his subsequent trial and impeachment from his position in the Church of England. The second part of the text then deals with the trial of another leader in the riots named Daniel Dammarree. The second text is written by John Locke, who was a famous political philosopher and theorist at the time. His book tries to detail and examine political societies and the thought behind them. In his book Locke argues that all men are equal and free which should lead to government by the majority. He then argues that monarchies ended up being established due to people wanting to protect their property and that this is a false way of government. These arguments reflect ideas that had been developed in England after the Glorious Revolution.

    The Sacheverell Riots reflect the growing tension in English Society particularly between the Whigs and Tories and also the strong religious undertones that remained in England. The Tories were behind the Riots as they were strong supporters of the Church of England and the new toleration given to dissenters by the new Whig administration upset them. This also shows a shift in politics in England as the Tories had historically been royalists and these riots were against the king and his ideas. Even though this shows tension between the two growing political parties it is still mainly a religious issue as the riots mostly attacked meeting houses of dissenters. It shows the problems behind the Revolutionary settlement as well. In this settlement toleration was still granted to dissenters although not as much as during the reign of James. This still alarmed many Englishmen as one of the reasons they disliked James so much was because of his support of dissenters. This shows that even though most of England supported the Glorious Revolution that the results of it still didn’t fix all the previous problems from James’s reign. These are problems that have persisted throughout previous English history as well.

    The main restoration type problems that Locke dealt with in his book with political issues about sovereignty. The issue of sovereignty had been a problem for years in England since the reign of King Charles and even after the Glorious Revolution. Much of this issue was dealt with with the revolutionary settlement but there was still many opinions on this topic among many Englishmen. Locke represents the argument of the people who were for popular sovereignty. Locke tried to resolve this issue by using examples from ancient civilizations of reign by the majority like in Sparta for example. He argues that all men are free and that the only way to successful run government while maintaining all peoples rights was through the rule of the majority. This was a growing idea as shown by how Parliament had recently gained much sovereignty after the Glorious Revolution. These ideas are contrary to the ideas of Hobbes who was also a famous English political Theorist. Hobbes believed that the king should be fully sovereign and own everything in his kingdom. As a result he believed the king had the right to do whatever he wanted with whoever’s property because it was his. This is the total opposite of what Locke argues for Government.

  4. The first text, is about the trials against Henry Sacheverell and Daniel Dammarree for his role in the Sacheverell riots. The controversy was started about a sermon that Henry Sacheverell preached, “The Perils of False Brethen, both in Church and State” about the Revolution. It in this speech that Sacheverell claims the means that were used to bring about the Revolution where not only “odious’, but that they were also unjustified. These are just some of the problems that Sacheverell addresses in his sermon. Along with that, he goes on to share his opinions about how he things that toleration is bad because it goes against God. The Whigs did not like what Sacheverell had to say about the government, and therefore proceeded with an impeachment. This highlights the struggles between the government and people who had varying opinions from what the people in power head. Clearly, Sacheverell is an example that if you go around preaching what you believe, does not work if it is in opposition to the message the people in government want spread, which is very different from what people in America are used to with the First Amendment. England’s government finds Sacheverell’s speeches as a threat and an attempt to deconstruct the constitution that exists. By the end of the trial, Sacheverell was found guilty and suspended from preaching as well as many of his sermons were to be burnt.
    The second text, focuses on chapter eight through ten, which goes into depth, philosopher Locke’s views on the Revolution. In the beginning of chapter eight, it is stated that Locke believed in a government in which everyone was in agreeance and that no government should act unless it was in what is desired by the majority. Locke was a firm believer in the majoritarian form of government. Another Restoration-Revolution problem that Locke was dealing with was that he believed in free nature. This meant that Locke believed that the government should do nothing more than be there to protect every individual’s natural given rights. This is why that he goes against a monarchy rule, and why he says that no man is really free in a government system that has a monarch. Then later, in Chapter 10, Locke states that no matter if it is a democratic, oligarchy, or monarch it really matters what the people want. Whichever form of government pleases the majority then that is what should be, which would go against the monarch system that England had in place for centuries. A main point in Locke’s views on government, that people have natural born rights that cannot be taken away by any form of government. Both Locke and Hobbes believe in the “state of nature”, in which the power of the government comes from its people. This is an idea that has become the foundation of many governments in the future including our own.

  5. The first document, “Sacheverell Trial and Trial related to Sacheverell Riots” is a secondary source that comes from the book, Sources and Debates in English History: 1485-1714. The text covers the events that surrounded the trial of Henry Sacheverell and Daniel Dammarree. The first section describes the process of removing Sacherverell from office and being found guilty. This section also details Dammarree’s trial in which he was found guilty but royally pardoned. The second text “The Second Treatise of Government ” is an excerpt taken from the book written by John Locke. Locke, similar to Hobbes, focused on the foundation of societies, the way we set up governments and their role. In his book Locke argued that all men were equal and the government should be run by the majority. Locke believes monarchies were set up in an attempt to protect private property but this is the wrong form of government.
    The Sacheverell riots can be understood as a reflection of the mounting political tensions. The new laws of toleration pushed by Whigs did not sit well with Tories leading to the riots. Sacheverell believed toleration went against the will of God and that the people should not blindly follow the government’s orders. Sacheverell’s sermons began to stick with the Anglican’s who feared a rise in Catholic power. This sentiment that was being expressed was dangerous for the Whig party who had Sacheverell impeached to silence him. Since the two political parties were backed by different political parties, these different beliefs in religion only further exposed the political divides in England. Just like Hobbes, Locke looks in depth at the “state of nature” and how men behaved without government. Unlike Hobbes, who believed the government existed to keep man in check, Locke believed the role of government was to ensure the freedoms of every man were guaranteed. Where Hobbes and Locke find common ground is that in order for a society to work the people must adhere to the laws of government. The shift from the political thought of Hobbes to Locke is indicative of the growing feeling a King/Queen should not rule England.

  6. The first text, “Sacheverell Trial and Trial related to Sacheverell Riots” is a secondary source based upon the trials of two members of the Sacheverell riots. The riots were a religious act by Tories against dissenters, attacking the houses and families of known dissenters. This source is split into two seperate sections each detailing the involvement of these two men. First, it detailed a sermon by Church of England official, Dr. Henry Sacheverelli of which incited these riots, claiming Whigs as an enemy of the Church or England and used this sermon as grounds for his removal from his position in the CHurch of England. Secondly, The Trial of a community organizer for these riots, Daniel Dammaree, was detailed. The second text, Second Treatise of Government is a book written by English philosopher and humanist, John Locke. The section of which we read was in a way, an instructional guide on how to run the Government by John Locke. Locke first looks into the history of what a political society was and has become. He then looks into whether or not any of these political societies were run in the correct way, looking at what the purpose of these governments held. Locke then comes to the conclusion that all men were created free and equal and that therefore the government should be run by all people, rather than a powerful few as in a monarchical class.

    The Sacheverelli riots reflect the theological and newly found political party tensions in their modern England. While the inciting of the riots were focused on religion, it became about much more. Much like in modern America, protests can take on different meaning than what has incited them, for example, with the Charlottesville white nationalist rally, it was first a protest of uniting the Conservatives, but soon became overtaken by a race riot, with armed racist men leading the charge. This is much like how the Sacheverelli riots began, with it being incited by a sermon speaking vehemently against nonconformists and the Tory party beginning to take this as an attack against Whigs as well and began to attack the houses of known Whigs and Nonconformists. This shows a new tension never seen before, where it was largely based on religion, there were now tension along political lines. These riots reflect that although the state of England had improved as a result of the Glorious Revolution, the problems of the reign of James would still remain, with religious tensions still as relevant as ever, even though the Toleration Act of James had already came and went years ago.

    The main problem Locke explored concerning politics was who should be the Sovereign? Locke was looking at the main political tension of the time, the fight between Parliament and the Crown on which body would hold more power. While this was for the most part solved by the Glorious Revolution, establishing the main sovereign body in England as Parliament. Locke then took his own opinion into account, that the Revolution was not nearly radical enough, advocating for a Government by the people, saying that all men were created equal and that the only way a government should be run is a government which takes into account the rule of the majority and allows elections amongst all people for new laws, policies, and lawmakers. Locke uses historical reference to draw the benefits of the rule of majority, looking at the historical and classical popular rule societies like the Greeks. Locke is only similar to Hobbes in terms of radical ideas, where Locke focused mainly on politics, Hobbes focused more on the will of man and subscribed to the belief of complete monarchical rule with little checks or balances to the rule of the Monarch.

  7. The first text is the “Sacheverell trial and trail realated to Sacheverell riots”, which took place between February 27-March 3 1710. The main man in trial was against Henry Sacheverell a preacher who preached against catholic teachings and made comparisons between the gunpowder plot and Charles the first. Henry was a tory and the whig government took great offense to these claims and tried him with articles of impeachment, where he was found guilty and sentenced to three years without preaching. During this time period a political war between the whigs and tories is going on, Henry is on the tory side and it makes sense that the political opposition would want to silence those preaching and talking against their way of life. While the government manages to silence Henry through the law this does not stop his followers from taking actions into their own hands as many dissenters had their houses burned down and several chapels were attacked. The tories were supporters of the Anglican church and therefor hated the dissenters because they wanted to completely leave the church. This trail shows that even in a time when there was technically religious freedom in Enlgand, the atmosphere is very harsh and unforgiving. Actions that occurred in parliament had trickling down effects that affected all of the common people even causing them to incite violence in some cases. The tension between the parties in England during this point in time is very tense, and can be felt throughout parliament and even the everyday person.

    The second article is “Second Treatise of Government” by John Locke discusses the beginning of “political societies” and the purpose of them. Locke believes that all men are equal and independent and have their own political power, and that the only reason that should be abandoned is if they all agree to it so that they can further their safety and protection. The ideas of Locke are very much the opposite of what Hobbes said. Locke believed that the power should rest in the hands of people, parliament, not the monarch like Hobbes believed. Locke believes that man is inherently good and that without a government man would still behave in good nature, therefor the government should only ensure the rights and liberties of the people nothing more or less. On the contrary Hobbes believed that people were inherently bad and that they needed a strong monarch to tell them what to do. During this time England can be seen to embracing Locke’s idea more than Hobbes and this can be seen through the growing power of parliament over the king, the people’s electives are growing stronger because the people are the ones whose voices need to be heard. Locke believed that all the power should rest in the hands of the people, as the rights of each person were God-given and therefore cannot and should not be taken away by anyone for any reason.

  8. The first two texts deal with the trial of Dr. Henry Sacheverell and Daniel Dammaree respectively. Each are primary sources with secondary commentary from the author of the chapter. Sacheverell was an Anglican clergyman who became infamous after preaching against the Whigs in both church and state. The text explains that this sermon followed in the wake of pamphlets produced by Jonathan Swift, a Tory churchman and future novelist. Dammaree was a royal waterman accused of rallying together with approximately 500 others to wage armed conflict against Queen Anne. He was to be drawn and quartered for high treason, but he was pardoned and reinstated to his position until the death of the queen. Locke’s piece is a primary source treatise on the political mechanisms of society. John Locke was an English philosopher and physician. His writings like Second Treatise of Government were instrumental in establishing 18th century Enlightenment thinking and Liberalism.
    The Sacheverell riots reveal inner tensions in church and state over the balance of power between the wealthy Whigs and the landed Tories. They reflect a serious instance of public disorder in English history. Anglicans, often aligning themselves with the Tories, became dissatisfied with the toleration of Dissenters and the strengthens of Presbyterian, Independent, and Baptist congregations. The Whigs in government became identified with these frustrations and, furthermore, with the growth of the merchant classes and the economic change this incited.
    Locke explains that to live quietly under the privileged of a government does not make you a subject of that government. This may reference to the influx of Calvinist refugees in England.
    Locke is similar to Hobbes in describing man in a state of nature as freer than man formed into society with others. The two agree that the individual must give up something fundamental to join with other for the good of the commonwealth. Locked also envisions power as emanating from the top down, although he does not require it to be based in one man.

  9. The first text, “Sacheverell Trial and Trial Related to Sacheverell Riots,” are records of the trials of the preacher Sacheverell and in the second portion a follower of his. Sacheverell was an High Church Anglican preacher demanding in his sermons which he then printed that dissent must be cracked down upon and the church strengthened. The trial of Sacheverell was a controversial one conducted during Queen Anne’s reign. The result, a guilty verdict, sparked riots among his followers. This then led to the riots that led to the trial of the palace worker Daniel Dammarree. He was accused of having a leading role in the riots, tearing down the place of worship of dissenters. Text two, “Second Treatise of Government” was written by John Locke a british theologian at the rise of William the Orange in 1689. The text is a book written on Locke’s beliefs on the powers and origins of government. This book sparked the revolutionary ideals that all men are born with certain freedoms which they then sacrifice for the security given by a state. He also champions the idea of majority rule in stark opposition to the monarchical powers of kings.

    The sacheverell riots reveal just how tense english politics, society and religion were at the time. His sermons came at a time of great change when a near catholic revolution had just been defeated. Parliament chose the king for the first time and limited his powers more than ever in the history of the British monarchs. And with that increased power of Parliament came the increased competitiveness of campaign and the voters having more of a choice in their potential leaders. The divisions are shown through the High Church beliefs of the tories and the dissenters that make of the Whig faction which thus leans their biases into their government and judicial decision making, deepening the splits between the two sides which is also seen in society’s division of court versus country. All these issues reflect the problem of the revolutionary settlement placing English politics in new waters. Parliament has never had this much power or true debate that so accurately reflected the voters.

    Locke was mainly grappling with the issue of sovereignty. He wrote at a time when parliament was having a tough time deciding on the new King since James technically didn’t abdicate just run away. They also were attempting the true heir James’s son by everyone claiming he was snuck into the birthing room via warming pan and it was all a trick which most knew was a lie. Then they tried to give the throne to Mary, a Stuart at the very least, but William made it clear he would leave if not crowned king himself. Therefore Parliament had the dilemma of trying to put aside precedent and declare William king themselves, completely in disregard of the Great Chain. No longer was the monarch on a level all their own above everyone else, but now they were forced to debate and engage with their council and parliament. Locke believed in resolving them through ruling through majority, exactly was England was now much more capable of doing due to the increased competitiveness of elections and creation of modern style campaigns. Hobbes and Locke are similar in that they both believe in a state of man that comes before the government. That all men are equal and born with rights then create a government which limits them.

  10. The authors of the first text are Newton Key and Robert Bucholz and is a secondary account of historical event in English history. The section of the text read was of a trial for Sacheverell and of the riots that took place after his conviction, both in 1710. The text is showing how the thoughts of religion in England still wasn’t unified at this time. People had differing ideologies and sometimes took matters into their own hands instead of following government rulings and actions. The second text is written by John Locke in 1689 who was an English philosopher. The text speaks of his ideas on politics and government, as well as their role in society. His ideas speak about liberty and natural rights of man, and how people willingly give up some rights for protection by becoming part of society and submitting oneself to a government. He also rights that governments should be fair, and their rulings should benefit the people.

    The Sacheverell riots reveal that the country still wasn’t unified with its religious and political ideologies. The country was separated into factions such as the Tories and the Whigs. Some people even took matters into their own hands when they felt that the government wasn’t doing their part which is why people burned down a meetinghouse. There were people who disagreed with the ruling of Sacheverell and thought of him as a martyr as the cries of “High Church and Sacheverell” were heard and used to rally allies. Much like how there are subsections and beliefs of being Protestant, even factions such as Whigs and Tories had people who didn’t agree with one another. Not everyone agreed with the actions of their own factions but they still band together as a group nonetheless because of their common beliefs that they do have. People weren’t content with the government as well, as seen from the people who disagreed with Anne’s ruling on Sacheverell. Society is never going to be completely unified to where everyone will be content with the state of the government and church.

    Locke wrote this the text after the Glorious revolution where King James II was replaced with his daughter Mary and her husband William. Along with the replacement came the Bill of Rights that gave Parliament more power in government. There were problems with Catholics and Protestants being at odds and some discontent with government. Locke tied to resolve this though his accounts by speaking of the natural rights that all humans have. Everyone is fit to rule and form a government, however not everyone does because it’s safer to conform under already established society for protection. The role of the government is to benefit the people and to protect their natural rights of liberty. Locke is similar to Hobbes in that he believes that human nature allows one to be selfish and want to protect one’s own natural rights. He also believed that a defending one’s rights in nature wasn’t enough, and that a civil society is needed to further protect the people.

  11. The first text is a two part secondary account detailing the trials against who were thought to be the two main conspirators of what would go on to be called “The Sacheverell Riots”. These men were Henry Sacheverell and Daniel Dammarree. The riot’s namesake comes from Henry Sacheverell who was facing impeachment, standing trial against the Whigs. This source was written by Newton Key and Robert Bucholz and is included in a book of secondary sources spanning from 1485-1714. After the first part details the proceedings of the trial, the second section of this source details the Articles of Confederation and the ways in which it is just for Sacheverell to be impeached, which he subsequently was. Key and Bucholz include a testimony from Sacheverell himself within their account and much of his testimony provides reasoning for the Whigs to be against his beliefs. For example, he labeled Whigs as being enemies of the royal family. The second text, “The Second Treatise of Government” is taken from English philosopher John Locke’s book of the same name. In this primary source, Locke details ways in which he thinks government would be the most productive and most fair governing man. Like Hobbes, Locke sees much importance within the foundation of any society and believes this is where the most effective government begins. In this source specifically, Locke shares his belief that all men are equal and it is only fair for the government to then be run by the majority rather than a monarchy. Furthermore, the only time Locke sees fit to give up these rights of man being entirely free and equal, is for the sake of protection. Even then however it is important that the majority still agrees to this, or else another form of monarchy would just begin again. Locke wrote these texts hoping to convince his reader of his philosophy, eventually establishing a society similar to that in his writings.

    The most apparent message sent through the Sacheverell riots was that the tension between the Tories and the Whigs was stronger than ever before. Likewise, the growing tension between these two sects could be felt throughout English society at the time. The riots were believed to be centered around the newfound toleration given to dissenters by the English Whig administration. The Tories were strong supporters of The Church of England and this administrative action only furthered the divide in England. The riots reflected a growing religious tension that seemingly persisted even through the revolution. The revolution introduced new political methods into England that arguably increased tensions even within the Whigs or Tories. Although most of England was for the revolution, problems from James’ rule still remain in England and only increase tensions between opposing sects of both government and religion. This also shows that no matter what, it just isn’t likely that England will ever find a religious and political state that satisfies its entire population.

    Locke dealt with the issue of sovereignty through his texts, an issue that seemingly plagued England and its politics since the earlier reigns of Charles and James. Like Hobbes, Locke believed that all men are created equal. This led to his belief that he frequently wrote about in his texts, that government should be run by the majority. Subsequently then of course, Hobbes was very anti-monarchy and viewed the concept that such few people could have such great power as medieval and unproductive. However, Locke does note in “The Second Treatise of Government” that whatever government the majority sees fit should be the active one, even if it is a monarchy. Hobbes believed in the freedom of man as well, but saw this freedom as some sort of danger that government needed to keep in order. Hobbes, unlike Locke, saw the monarch as free to perform whatever actions they see fit to keep its country in check. Although separate solutions, both presented possible solutions to the Restoration-Revolution problems now facing England.

  12. The first text, “Sacheverell Trial and Trial Related to Sacheverell Riots,” is made up of two sections. The first section of this text talks about Sacheverell and his trials, and the second section of the text talks about one of his followers and their trial. This text took place during the early 1700’s Henry Sacheverell was a preacher and tory during his time, and he was convicted for preaching catholic teachings. There was a major political battle happening during the time between the whigs and the tory’s, so it would make sense that Henry was silenced. The whigs did not like Henry openly speaking out against him, so they punished him to three years without preaching, but his followers were not punished. They began to retaliate by burning down houses and chapels to prove their point, causing tension in the government and England during the time. The second text is written by John Locke in 1689, who was an English philosopher. He believes that every man should be given the right to liberty and natural rights, and that each man gives up some of these liberties in order for protection from the government. He thinks that this is wrong and that governments should be fair, just institutions that work for the people.

    The Sacheverell riots reveal the countries tensions with their political and religious idelaogies. The country was separated into two different political parties, called the Whigs and the Tory’s. Political parties is obviously already a divide in the political aspect, since there are going to be two completely different ideologies struggling for power, and this leads to riots across the country. An example of this is when Sacheverell’s followers burned down a meetinghouse because they thought that he was wrongfully convicted. However, each party had problems of its own having people that were more conservative and people that were more of extremists and wanted to take action, like the people that rioted. This will cause divides in the certain political parties, which could lead to collapses inside of their own parties.

    The problems Locke was dealing with was who would be the sovereign power in England, the crown or Parliament. Locke, who was deemed a radical of his time, believed that it should be Parliament that had control over the government, but Parliament should be for the people. There should be open elections and it should be made up of the majority, not the rich and powerful landowners that would only fight for themselves inside the government. He believed that the government should work towards protecting people and their rights, and he believed this was the best way to achieve that. Locke is like Hobbs that they both believe in natural human rights and liberty for everyone, then it is the job of the government to limit these to a reasonable level.

  13. The first text, “Sacheverell Trial and Trial Related to Sacherverell Riots” was written by Newton Key and Buchholz, in This text discusses the trial of the Tory preacher Henry Sacherverll, was addressed. During this time, there a was major political and religious battle between the Whigs and the Tory’s. With Henry being a Tory and evangelizing his interpretation of the word of God upset the Whigs. They did not agree with Henry teaching Tory beliefs, especially during a time of political instability. Therefore, they told him that for three years he would be unable to preach any Tory teachings. However, this did not sit well with his Tory followers and they began to cause a riot in England by burning down chapels to send a message to the Whigs. The second text, “The Second Treatise of Government” written by English Philosopher John Locke in 1689, discusses ways in which the government and political stability can be reestablished and improved. Locke believes that all en were created equally and should all be given the same rights. He stresses that the government needs to view all men equally in order to rule all men equally.

    The Sacheverell riots represent the major political and religious divide in England during this time. The Whigs and the Tory’s were both fighting to assert their power and role into English politics which created tension within England. This tension led to an increasing amount of riots and chaos in England as well. This is represented through the Tory’s burning down the chapel and houses in honor of Sacheverell. This increasing battle between both political parties enabled room for more political instability to occur. However, even in both groups they had people who didn’t fully agree with everything their political side was doing and this also cause dinner tensions in the political parties.

    The major issue that Locke addressed concerning politics was thee issue of sovereignty and who should be put into power. During this time, there were major political battle between Parliament and the monarchy. This created political instability because there was not a firm establishment of who possessed of the real power. This issue was addressed through the Glorious revolution, when King James II daughter Mary took the throne and Parliament was now considered the “body” and the monarchy the “head” of politics. Locke believed the way to solve these problems was by expressing his philosophical view of every human having natural rights and men being treated equally. Locke is similar to Hobbes because they both believe that all men have freedom and should be treated equally. However, Hobbes believe that this level of freedom could lead to immense selfishness and possibly political problems for the government. Therefore, Hobbes believes that although everyone has natural rights, the government still needs to put limitations on these rights so things do not spur out of control.

  14. The first texts, “The trial of Dr. Henry Sacheverell” and “The Trial of Daniel Dammarree for his role in the Sacheverell Riots”, are a collection of historical accounts written by Robert Buchoolz and Newton Key. This historical account is clearly written in the modern day, with much retrospect and other historical accounts to base their history off of. “The trial of Dr. Henry Sacheverell” accounts the controversial, Tory-leaning speech made by the Anglical Henry Sacheverell that calls for less toleration of religion policies. Sacheverell ultimately is impeached as a result of his controversial views about the role of religion and government in society, as the text describes. “The Trial of Daniel Dammarree for his role in the Sacheverell Riots” similarly describes how Dammarree, a person who supported Sacheverell and participated in the resulting Sacheverell Riots, and the resulting trial reflects political and religious divisions in England. The second text is from the Second Treatise of Government by John Locke, written in 1689. The purpose of this treatise is to lay out an opinionated framework through which to view government and how people should be represented through politics. Locke, a philosopher, talks about the nature of men and how that nature leads to the formation of what he calls a “body politic,” or a political community. He lays out the different prerogatives of government and also explains the differences in forms of government.

    The Sacheverell riots reveal both political and religious tensions within English society. The religious tensions are evident in Sacheverell’s speech. After the War of Spanish Succession, the Whig party used war profits to support dissenters, or those not supporting the Anglican Church. A devoted Anglican himself, Sacheverell calls dissenters “sworn adversaries to passive obedience and the royal family.” The religious conflict, then, was between the devoted Anglicans and the non-conforming dissenters. Political divisions tended to align with this religious difference as well. As a result of Sacheverell’s attack against dissenters, the Whig party began the impeachment process against Sacheverell, a Tory, and eventually succeeded. The subsequent Sacheverell riots reflect an Anglican, Tory coalition attacking a more religiously diverse and Whig populace show the overlap between religious and political divisions in England at the time.

    The problem of representation is something that has plagued English society for a majority of its history, peaking at the English Civil War. Locke clearly believes that in terms of representation, a “body politic” should be made up of the people, and that every decision made by the community should be the decision of the majority of the people. This is similar to the overall trend in English society, in which England transitioned from a monarch-led state to a Parliament-led state. Locke also describes why the state-of-nature of mankind requires them to unite into a political community. As Locke says in chapter 9, “all men are kings as much as he is, every man is equal, and most men are not strict observers of fairness and justice; so his hold on property he has in this state is very unsafe, very insecure” (123). This can reflect English political conflict in that it shows the need, based in nature, for people to unite in a representative fashion to make decisions. No matter the religious or political disputes, Locke can be seen to describing the natural need of an individuals to unite to protect their individual and collective goods. Locke’s views are similar to Hobbes’ views in that both believe that a government ultimately serves the people and derives its sovereignty from the people. Nevertheless, while Locke believes in a majoritarian rule led by the people, Hobbes believes in a strong monarch to lead a community.

  15. The first text is a secondary telling of the trials of conspirators in the Sacheverll riots. This text was written by historians well after the fact, but include primary details from historical events. These were Tory incited riots directed toward dissenters for their stance against the Anglican Church. Dr. Henry Sacheverll was impeached of his clergy position and tried for inciting these riots by the Whigs. The reasonings are given in excerpts of the text including insulting the crown. Daniel Dammarree is discussed in the next section. Similarly to Sacheverll, Dammarree acted against religious toleration specifically by burning Presbyterian meeting places and inciting riots. The second reading is called “The Second Treatise of Government” and is written by John Locke, an English political philosopher of the time. This primary source examines political systems of the time, and Locke theorizes the idea of individuals being equal and free and this being reflected in government. He compares and contrasts governmental systems, pointing out flaws in the current English government. These ideas are reflective of the time where England seemed to need to develop new governmental systems frequently.

    The Sacheverll riots reflected the growing division between the Whigs and Tories and their respective religious differences. On one hand the Tories supported the Church of England and wished to see it as the only church in the land. While the Whigs on the other hand supported religious toleration. Tories started this riots as a means of removing non Church of England groups by doing things such as burning Presbyterian meeting places. These riots show the growing divide in English politics, society, and religion. However, these specific events reflect a stronger divide in religion. This also shows issues behind the revolutionary settlement. Toleration was still had despite the glorious revolution and removal of King James II, although to much less of a degree. James II toleration was very much disliked, and these riots were a reflection of the growing unrest of the English people because of the toleration that continued to be had.

    Locke discussed restoration issues regarding sovereignty. Specifically, who was the sovereign governing body of England. This issue had been ongoing from the Tudors all the way into the Glorious Revolution. For instance, the continuous clashes between the Stuarts and parliament were issues of sovereignty. Locke presents a new spin on sovereignty: Popular Sovereignty. This was ahead of its time, implying that government was a representation of the people and should reflect what the entire people believe. He claims all men are free and have a right to representative government. While this was ahead of the time, some of the ideas were reflected in the current English political system such as the gain in sovereign power by Parliament during the Glorious Revolution. This grab was an attempt to stop Stuart-like Monarchs believing the King is the sovereign and above the law. Locke falls on the other end of the spectrum as Hobbes, who claimed that there should be one all powerful sovereign leader.

  16. The first document addresses the trials of Henry Sacheverell and one of his followers, Daniel Dammarree. Sacheverell and Dammarree were a Tories and supported the Anglican Church. Sacheverell preached about the dangers of a more representative government and warned his followers that the Anglican Church was being weakened under the current English government. Sacheverell was put on trial by the Whigs in Parliament and was found guilty and punished, which angered Anglicans everywhere including his follower Dammarree. Dammarree had participated in an attempt to overthrow Queen Anne and was found guilty until Queen Anne herself pardoned him. The second document is called “Second Treatise of Government” and is the second part of John Locke’s two-part book, “Two Treatises of Government.” Chapters 8-10 of this book discuss Locke’s ideas on how political systems and societies are built and what purpose they serve. Locke’s ideas are mainly based on his idea that all men have the right to choose how they govern themselves, which directly opposes his counterpart, Thomas Hobbes.
    The Sacheverell riots were attacks by Anglican Tories on dissenters’ homes and meeting places. Henry Sacheverell’s famous sermon inspired these attacks and they show how political lines are drawn in England. Sacheverell is against toleration and so attacks dissenters of the Anglican Church, who usually supported the Whig party. These riots show us a major religious rift that aligns with a political rift as well. This alignment only served to escalate the issue because the Anglicans were supported by Tories in Parliament while the dissenters had the Whig support. The Sacheverell riots show the need for a separation of church and state, as does most of English history. The increased toleration brought about by James was one of the reasons for the Glorious Revolution and these riots further show that the issues of the revolutionary settlement are still a point of contention.
    John Locke’s “Second Treatise of Government” deals with the persistent problem of sovereignty. John Locke is a staunch supporter of popular sovereignty because he believes that men are reasonable enough to rule themselves. Locke believes that naturally, men have rights to life, liberty, and property, and the government only exists to protect those rights. Only through a representative government or a commonwealth can this be achieved. Locke wrote this at a pivotal moment in English history and the Glorious Revolution and the Bill of Rights were steps towards Locke’s idea of a perfect government. Locke is similar to Hobbes in that they both believe that man can not function at his highest level in nature, although they disagree on how to fix that problem. Both of their governments serve to protect people, but they differ due to their differing ideas on the state of man. Locke believes that we are reasonable and so must have a say in how we are ruled so that the government will protect us. Hobbes believes that men are selfish in nature and need a strong monarch to unite them and protect them from outside invaders who wish to harm them. Locke’s view is considered radical at the time but would now be considered the far more moderate of the two philosophers.

  17. The first text that was analyzed, “Sacheverell Trial and Trial Related to Sacheverell Riots”, is a secondary source describing the trials of the organizers of the Sacheverell Riots. The text features a primary account of each of the trials followed by the words of the authors. The two men the texts focus on are Henry Sacheverell and Daniel Dammarree. The Sacheverell Riots concerned issues of religious freedoms and the newly founded political parties seen in England, the Whigs and the Tories. The second text that was analyzed, “The Second Treatise of Government”, is a primary source written by John Locke. John Locke was an English philosopher, known for his political theory during the Enlightenment era. His works have influenced the course of many governments, including the United States. The text primarily discusses the best way to establish and run a government. Locke believed that the best form of government would be a limited one that had the consent of the people to govern them. Furthermore, this limited government would protect the natural rights that its citizens were born with.

    The Sacheverell Riots reveal the social unrest that was still very prevalent in England. The social unrest of this time was caused because of differences between the Tories and the Whigs, as well as religious tensions that were still evident in English society. The riot seemed to take on multiple meanings, as it initially began as a religious riot that transformed into an issue of the parties. The Whigs had passed toleration laws that the Tories did not agree with, as the Tories generally supported the establishment and continued practice of the Church of England. The Tories responded by inciting riots to show their disapproval of the toleration laws and their support for the Church of England. The Sacheverell Riots show that the Glorious Revolution did not solve all issues of religious and political unrest. Furthermore, the Sacheverell Riots show that there is still disapproval of widespread toleration.

    The restoration issues that Lockes’ was grappling with in the text were the issues of political sovereignty and the power of a ruler. This text was written after James II was stripped of the throne and Mary assumed the throne with William. Locke believed that all people were born with natural rights and that the government should be in place to protect these rights. Furthermore, Locke believed that in order to protect these rights, a government should be limited and only change if the majority of the people believe it would be in their best interest. Lockes’ political theory and outlook on life differed significantly from Hobbes. Hobbes was known for his pessimistic outlook on human nature and this led him to support absolute monarchy. Hobbes essentially believed that human nature would cause any society to fall to ruins and this established the need for an absolute monarch who would prevent this from happening. John Locke, on the other hand, had a more optimistic outlook on human nature and supported the idea of a limited government. Locke believed that a limited government would be put in place to support the freedoms of the people rather than limit them. However, Locke and Hobbes did find some common ground in believing that it was up to the people to adhere to the rules of their government to have a functioning society.

  18. The first text, “The Trial of Dr. Henry Sacheverell” is written by Newton Key and Robert Bucholz. This text is an excerpt of a book with records of historical events. This is a secondary source. This text is describing the trial and surrounding riots of the Sacheverell case, a clergyman who was impeached. It also describes another case, Daniel Dammarree, who was also declared guilty at first. “Second Treatise of Government” is a text written by John Locke, a political theorist. This text was published in 1689 originally. Here he describes the state of nature of humans and how government and society should be structured in a civil society. He also argues that in front of God, all men are equal.
    The Sacheverell riots revealed the ongoing tension in England. They also showed the rising conflict between Whigs and Tories, and their respective ideologies. Tories, many of whom were rioting, were in favor of the Church of England. Since Henry Sacheverell was a clergyman, his trial upset many. Also, this conflict shows the continuous religious and political bond that many conflicts still had at the time. They were also rioting against the monarch and the leniency shown towards dissenters. Therefore, the unity between different ideologies was far from attainable yet and only growing worse. This also showed citizens to speak up when they felt they were not being heard or represented.
    Locke wrote a lot about the state of nature of humans and what he believed government was created for. He discusses the restoration problems, such as sovereignty, and what they really mean to those in power and to the people at large. He also talks about where the power is derived from, which is the people. He also goes on to describe the sovereign’s job, which is to protect the majority’s rights. This discussion may have contributed to the growing consideration of a functioning republic. Locke is similar to Hobbes in that both consider the natural state of man to contemplate the current state of government and how it should be. Locke shows more trust in people, whereas Hobbes wanted concentrated power in one body. They also both agree in the notion that individuals give up certain rights for the protection of government.

  19. The first text “Sacheverell Trial and Trial related to Sacheverell Riots,” is an excerpt from a book written by Newton Key and Robert Bucholz. The book itself, written in 1485, is about historical events, making the text a secondary source. The text is an account of two trials, the first is Sacheverell and the second is Daniel Damrree. Sacheverell was a clergy member put who was impeached under the trial of impeachment by the whig ministry in 1710. Both defendants were found guilty but, the queen pardon Bucholz. The second text, “Second Treatise of Government,” was written by John Locke in 1689 in a book called Two Treaties of Government. The text focused on the beginning of political societies and the purpose of them within the government. The document also explains about the formation of the commonwealth and their role in society.

    The Sacherverell riots revealed the escalating conflict between the Whigs and the Tories. The riots also revealed the strong religious pull and push motivations that remained in Europe. The tories caused the riots as they were strong followers of the Church of England. They disliked the religious toleration given to disenteres by the whigs. This shows a shift in party dynamics as historically the Tories have typically been against the policies of the king. The strong religious pull comes from the fact that most riots attacked houses of dissenters. Although the amount of religious toleration given did not match what James originally wanted, toleration was unsatisfactory to the english because it supported disenters. This shows that even though most of england supported the Glorious revolution, many are still unhappy with the changes that are being made.

    The main issue that Locke dealt with was trying to discern who was the sovereign? To discern this he looked at the historical power struggle between the crown and parliament. In recent history under the glorious revolution, parliament had now established itself as the dominant sovereign. However seeing that parliament has sovereign power, he believes that the reform was not radical enough to support the notion of a truly democratic gov’t. He advocated for a gov’t for the people under the idea that all men are created equally and that the only way to run a government is one that is dictated by majority rule. The two are only similar in terms of creating radical ideas that serve as the foundation for most of society afterwards.

  20. The first text was written by Bucholz and Key as a historical account. The text describes the Sacheverell Trial. This involves a Henry Sacheverell who was put on trial for preaching anti-government beliefs in England. He was found guilty and was ordered to not preach for three years and have his texts burnt. The second text was written by John Locke in 1689. He was presumably a man of status given that he had the time and education to compose this. The Second Treatises lays out the ideal form of government of John Locke based on natural rights. He argues that the power does not lie with a sovereign but with the people. He also argues that people have never been given consent to be governed since they were born into government.
    The riots that resulted from this trial are a glimpse into the political divisions within England. In general, the Whigs supported a broader Protestant unity. This is in contrast to the tories who generally supported a upholding religious distinction between the Church of England and Protestants. In addition to the religious differences, there were also political conflicts. Whigs were more likely to believe that Parliament serves as a check on royal power. These riots show that religious differences still run strong within England. The opposing sides still feel like they must ‘win’ and have their religious identity prevail. They still refuse to accept broad compromise despite small progress being made.
    Locke, broadly speaking, sought to deal with the issue of royal authority vs. parliamentary authority. Locke wanted to establish a certain set of natural rights that could not be taken away from government as his solution. Locke also wanted reform in the fundamental way government is created. Locke believed that government can only function with the consent of the governed, not the other way around. Locke is similar to Hobbes in that they both believed in the need for reform. The difference is who they believed should receive more power. Locke believed in giving more power to the people while Hobbes believed in giving government more power.

  21. The first document, “Sacheverell Trial and Trial Related to Sacheverell Riots” actually consists of two excerpts from the trial of Sacheverell and a trial related to the riots around the Sacheverell case. The two texts were originally written in 1710 by scribes following the two court cases. The texts have since been conjoined by Newton Key and Robert Bucholz, making it a secondary source document. The texts describe the trial of Sacheverell, a church clergymen, for his comments related to the English government. The second text within this document, “The Trial of Daniel Dammarree for his role in the Sacheverell Riots” is a trial related to vandalism Dammarree committed in support of Sacheverell. The second document “The Second Treatise of Government” is written by John Locke in 1689. It is a primary source document. A revolutionary document, Locke explained his view on the relationship between the people and government. Locke argued that majority rules is better than the rule of one absolute ruler.

    The Sacheverell riots reveal the broad divides that were present during the English society during this time. Sacheverell denounces the increased power in government and wants to church to be independent from the meddling of government in religion. He believed that religious toleration of the Catholics was unhealthy for the Anglican Church. Understandably, many Anglicans and Tories agreed while many Religious minorities and Whigs dissented. These problems Sacheverell brought forth were not new, but they did, in many ways, shock many English. The Whigs had been liberalizing religion at such a pace that led to a large part of the population to disapprove to the point of rioting. Even though Sacheverell was convicted, these riots show that the English have still not reached the point of clear majoritarian support for religious toleration. Locke’s work deals mainly with the rights of the individual the rights under a government. Locke believed that individuals had certain rights and that the state was not able to take those rights away. Another issue Locke brings up is the rule of the people vs the rule of a centralized figure. He believes that the rule of the majority is superior to that a monarch, etc because the people will always act in the interests of the people. In this way, many of the problems the English were facing at the time could be solved. Locke and Hobbes are both significant writers of political ideas during this time. While they fundamentally disagree over the role of government in the citizenry, they agree on the issue of the individual vs the government. They both believe that the individual has rights that are inalienable and come before anything that the government does/says.

  22. The first text “Sacheverell Trial and Trial related to Sacheverell riots” is a part of a textbook written by a secondary source called “Sources and debates in english history” by Bucholz and keys in 2009. The original texts date back to late 1600’s to early 1700’s. This is made up of two separate sections, one about Dr. Henry Sacheverell, his impeachment, and his ideas while the other was about David Dameree. David Dameree was influenced by Sacheverells beliefs and was brought to court for being part of the Sacheverell riots. Sacheverell preached that they government should be in complete control of the country, and the people should have no choice to follow. He was very strongly against the whig party as well as dissenters and catholics. What these texts say about english history is that after the birth of political factions, they began to align with certain religious groups. Tories would align with Church of England while the Whig party would be aligned with dissenters and catholics. These attacks by David dameree and others on dissenters and catholics in the Sacheverells riots were much about politics as they were about religion. Another thing you can read through these texts is the how though religious toleration was legal, people were still very against other beliefs. Tories believed that everyone must follow the Church of England and its against your country if you don’t. Pushing religious groups into political factions only creates more of a tense situation.

    The second text “Second treatise of Government” is a primary source written in 1689 by english philosopher John Locke. Second treatise of Government was originally part of the book “Two treatise of Government”. Reading chapter 8-10, Locke talks on the topics of government and sovereignty and what should be each others role in government. He tries to say that every man in England was created equal and therefore the only proper way to decide what happens is through the majority vote and not on the shoulders of the monarch. He tries to solve a solution for the government to work in the most fair way. Locke throughout his texts continues the battle of the power struggle between both the government and monarchy and tries to figure out what fair. Locke’s beliefs in everyone man was created equal and the majority vote should decide the country, not monarch does not mean he doesn’t think England should have a monarchy. In chapter 10, he states that whatever political system the people choose should be the one they follow. The people of England have constantly tried to keep a monarch while trying to increase the power of the people, meaning Locke believes the monarch still should be around. Thomas Hobbes, agreed with Locke’s point about everyone being created equal but disagreed with the idea of how much power the monarch should have, as he believed that the monarch should be able to push policies he believes in.

  23. The first text “Sacheverell Trial and Trial related to Sacheverell Riots” is a secondary source that is an excerpt from the book sources and debates in English History, 1485-1714 and was written by historians Newtown Key and Robert Bucholz. The purpose of this text is to illustrate the trial of Sacheverell as well as members of the riots. Sacheverell’s trial was ultimately following the result of an extremely controversial sermon that was delivered on November 5th of 1709. Sacheverell was ultimately found guilty however this essentially developed him as a martyr in the eyes of his supporters and resulted in the riots and destruction and arson of Presbyterian and Dissenter places of business and worship. The text additionally contains the trial of Daniel Dammarree, which occurred after the trial of Sacheverell involves the depiction of the resulting case against those who aided and participated in the riots following the outcome of Sacheverell’s case. The second text “Second Treatise of Government” is a primary source that was written by John Locke and originally published in 1689. John locke was an English philosopher and physician who is notably referenced regarding his views on Enlightenment and nicknamed “the father of Liberalism”. The purpose of the second part of this text was to outline Locke’s theories regarding civilization that was based on natural rights and contract theory. Locke ultimately wrote this text with the intention of establishing some of the fundamental laws in which citizens would hold relationships with their government. This is the foundation of the ideology that under natural law people have the right to life and liberty.

    The Sacheverell riots reveal that English politics were very much conflicted and divided at the time. The people clearly felt that they were not fairly being represented by their government and therefore choose to take action. It additionally reflects this consensus that if parliament or government does not take actions that are indeed supportive of the people that the people will respond in a negative way. These riots also represent the development of tensions and conflict between the Whigs and the Tories. The riots showed the disposition and indifference in regard to not only personal rule and representation by the government but also a difference in regard to religious beliefs. This clearly indicates that religious tensions were not yet extinguished even after the revolution. These tensions also represent the continued struggle between the place of religion in its relationship with government and the people. This reading especially makes it seem that regardless of beliefs it appears that there is not a solution to this problem and that many of these questions regarding solutions will need to be addressed in some other way.

    Locke was more specifically addressing the problems that we see between individual and state. This can be observed as his dealings with sovereignty and the ultimate fairness and democracy that should encompass all individuals within the society. This seems to be in great contrast to some of the early sovereignty problems of England. It used to be that many of the working class people that were considered peasants in many cases were considered to be property and that the classification of people ultimately established who fell where on the food chain. Although it is clear that much of this does still exist at this point in time it becomes clear that there is this democratic development towards a more representative state that will eventually care more about the people and lives of the individual than it does at this point in time. Although Locke and Hobbes have similar ideas in regards to their perception of the people, it can be seen that they both differ in regard to their conception of the state of nature and how societies transition to this state.

  24. The first text is a section of a textbook, written by historians long after the events described took place. The text describes the Sacheverell Riots and the following trial. Henry Sacheverell, a preacher in the Church of England, preached a sermon stating that the Glorious Revolution, which ousted the Catholic King James and replaced him with a protestant, was “odious and unjustifiable.” This sermon prompted Tories to riot and burn down the homes of dissenters. Sacheverell was then tried and impeached from his position with the church. The text also includes the trial of Daniel Dammarree, who was a bargeman and a leader of the riots. Dammarree was later pardoned by the queen.

    The Sacheverell Riots reveal the divisions in English politics and societies. In the riots it was clear that the Tories were rioting against dissenters, and the Whigs in power did not like that. The trials show the balance of power being in favor of the Whigs. In religion, there is also division between people who want to remain with the Church of England, Protestant dissenters, and Catholics, as shown by the riots targeting dissenters.

    The second text was written by John Locke in 1689. In it, Locke describes his views on government and society. Locke believes everyone is free to make decisions, but also must be subjected to the views of the majority. The benefits of a community and society require a majority rule, and in order to be a member of such a society one must submit to the majority. For Locke, agreeing to submit the laws and rule of a majority government is necessary to improve one’s condition. The form of government Locke describes is a democracy, however, in the chapter 10 he makes the point that he does not endorse one form of government over another. Locke’s views differ from Hobbes; however, both take into consideration man in the state of nature, and both believe that government is necessary to improve man’s condition. Locke believes a majority government is best, while Hobbes feels a monarch should keep everyone in line.

  25. The first text provided was Sacheverell Trial and Trial related to Sacheverell Riots which is an excerpt of an academic history book detailing on “Later Stuart Politics, Thought, and Society” by Robert Bucholz and Newton Key. With this being a modern academic analysis of the history in question and not a firsthand account, it provides a more objective, if detached, summation of the trial. The content of this excerpt is the overview of two particular trials during the Whig administration. The first trial examined was for Doctor Henry Sacheverell, a clergyman, for his preaching in opposition/ denouncement of the Revolution. For his apparent subservient works, the Whig ministry was found Doctor Sacheverell guilty of his charges and impeached. The second trial detailed was for a Daniel Dammarree, a bargeman, for attacks made on a Presbyterian meeting houses. According to the text, Daniel was inspired to do so in response to Sacheverell’s preachings. Daniel was sentenced to death for high treason but was pardoned by Queen Anne. The other text provided, Second Treatise of Government, is a section of a larger book written by John Locke in 1689. This work is of a scholarly nature detailing Locke’s firsthand critique on the system of English government and the society it governs. John Locke speaks on a few different topics, however he spends particular effort to view the right of a man to be preserved and draws parallels between the state of war and that of nature.

    The Sacheverell riots display a clear division within English politics and society on the whole. These riots sprang from the discontent held by various Englishmen, from the clergy to simple bargemen, in regards to the legitimacy and justifications for the prior revolution. From a religious stand point, the tensions between those adhering to the Church of England and Presbyterians were made plain as day by Daniel Dammarree’s attack on Presbyterian meeting houses. These rioters, which were made of what are called Tories, attacked and hassled those in support of the Whig party.

    Locke’s radical views held that the government was there to serve the people it ruled and not the other way around. He felt that the government had the obligation to guarantee the liberties of the subjects, voicing his support of the rule of majority. These all came to question the role of a government and the monarchy when applying rule. These beliefs, ran in stark contrast to our previously studied thinker Hobbes, who felt government served to shepherd and control those under it in order to be successful. It would certainly appear that Locke was an optimist when looking at the nature of man.

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