Blog Post 12

Refine the detailed income statement for your venture for two years (at six month intervals) or a more appropriate time scale. Explicitly state the assumptions that underlie your financial model.


Income Statement:


Please click the link for the most detailed information. The assumptions below are summarized using information from the document above. 



  • Sales Projections: Period is 160 days each, each muffin is being sold for SLL1500, 500 units of each product will be sold per day, products will be sold at the bakery and at kiosks
    • Period 1: 
      • 500 muffins/day in Makeni 
      • Revenue = SLL120,000,000
    • Period 2: 
      • 1,000 muffins/day in Makeni, 500 muffins/day in Freetown Location 1 
      • Revenue = SLL360,000,000
    • Period 3: 
      • 1,200 muffins day in Makeni, 1000 muffins/day in Freetown Location 1,500 muffins/day in Freetown Location 2  
      • Revenue = SLL648,000,000
    • Period 4: 
      • 1,500 muffins/day in Makeni, 1500 muffins/day in Freetown Location 1, 1,000 muffins/day in Freetown Location 2 
      • Revenue = SLL960,000,000
  • COGS:
    • Raw materials (ingredients) = SLL156/Unit
      • 500 units of each product will be produced per day = SLL78,000/Day
  • Production costs = SLL485/Unit
    • 500 units of each product will be produced per day = SLL242,500/Day
  • Helpers’ Wages = SLL5,823,000
    • ~2 Helpers/500 Muffins
  • Bakery Specialist Wages = SLL8,734,500
    • 1 additional specialist per location (bakery already has 1, so we will have a total of 2 per location and only have to pay the additional one ourselves)
  • Operating Expenses:
    • Supervisor salary per period is SLL38,820,000
    • Supervisor associate salary per period is SLL7,277,031


Refine the Business Model for your venture based on your revenue model. You may use the Osterwalder BMC to refine your business model but prepare one or more visuals that explain how your venture will work and accomplish your BHAG.


Business Model


The graphic below shows how our venture is going to work. The supervisor and supervisor associate oversee all activities – setting up manufacturing, building partnerships, looking at social and economic outcomes in long term. Betteh Bakery will have helpers who are in charge of purchasing and processing ingredients, while the specialist ensures the muffin recipe is done to completion. Muffins can be purchased at the bakery directly, at kiosks the bakery will be setting up throughout the city, or through the street vendor network. Through those distribution methods, we will be able to reach communities.


Develop an M&E plan for your venture.

  • Clearly list all assumptions.
  • Identify short-term and long-term success metrics.
  • Identify specific methods to measure the metrics.


In order to succeed in monitoring and evaluating our venture, we have split success metrics between sales and reduced malnutrition. Our long-term metric is successfully decreasing the malnutrition rate in Sierra Leone by 13% in five years, so the rate goes from 38% to 25%. Our metrics for success in the short term are dependent on our sales. If we are able to achieve our sales projections, we will succeed in terms of business operations. In order to do this, we have to hire a supervisor, supervisor associate, baking specialists, and bakery helpers. By dividing the laborious aspect of our venture between bakers and helpers, we will be able to have the employees necessary to work in producing the food products, and the supervisor will monitor our progress over time. Newtrition helpers will assist in sourcing and processing ingredients through peeling and cutting vegetables, and other labor-intensive tasks. Baking specialists will be responsible for working inside Betteh and baking the muffins.

 In order to keep track of our sales, our supervisor will oversee how many muffins we are able to sell from our initial production number of 500. Since we will be selling muffins from the bakery and through market kiosks we set up, the supervisor will be responsible for distributing muffins amongst our different sale locations and tracking overall sales. They will also be responsible for marketing our product. The supervisor associate will be responsible for shadowing and assisting the supervisor so that when we are able to expand into a different area such as Freetown, they understand the nature of the work they must put in to succeed. Once we can track our sales, we will be able to gauge the frequency behind the consumption of the muffins prior to scaling. Though our venture is primarily focused on reducing malnutrition, we have to establish a system that allows our muffins to become consumed regularly and gain desirability as we scale and our venture becomes more well known. Through achieving this first assumption, we can proceed to measure the long term metric of reduced malnutrition through collecting periodic data analysis of the change in micronutrient deficiencies once we have steady-state operations. 

Through our partnership with World Hope, we will leverage their connections to government affiliates and health clinics to designate a data collector who will aid in providing and managing testing for future Newtrition students to analyze. With an increase in sales, we can assume that there is an increase of consumption of our products; this positive trend can be used to determine consumption habits and understand if we are reaching our target demographic of children under 5. We can approach this through conducting monthly screenings through the communities we have set up bakeries and kiosks within. As we are able to screen and inform mothers about their children’s health, we can promote our product as an affordable method of feeding their children with the nutritional value they need for healthy development. Logging the mothers who arrive with their children will allow us to maintain a record of the success of our products; weight gain and gradual health development, and help us get a sense of the effectiveness of our products.


Blog Post 11

Develop a detailed income statement for your venture for two years (at six month intervals). Explicitly state the assumptions that underlie your financial model.


Income Statement:


Please click the link for the most detailed information. The assumptions below are summarized using information from the document above. 



  • Sales Projections: Period is 160 days each, each muffin is being sold for SLL1500, 500 units of each product will be sold per day, products will be sold at the bakery and at kiosks
    • Period 1: 
      • 500 muffins/day in Makeni 
      • Revenue = SLL120,000,000
    • Period 2: 
      • 1,000 muffins/day in Makeni, 500 muffins/day in Freetown Location 1 
      • Revenue = SLL360,000,000
    • Period 3: 
      • 1,200 muffins day in Makeni, 1000 muffins/day in Freetown Location 1,500 muffins/day in Freetown Location 2  
      • Revenue = SLL648,000,000
    • Period 4: 
      • 1,500 muffins/day in Makeni, 1500 muffins/day in Freetown Location 1, 1,000 muffins/day in Freetown Location 2 
      • Revenue = SLL960,000,000
  • COGS:
    • Raw materials (ingredients) = SLL156/Unit
      • 500 units of each product will be produced per day = SLL78,000/Day
  • Production costs = SLL485/Unit
    • 500 units of each product will be produced per day = SLL242,500/Day
  • Helpers’ Wages = SLL5,823,000
    • ~2 Helpers/500 Muffins
  • Bakery Specialist Wages = SLL8,734,500
    • 1 additional specialist per location (bakery already has 1, so we will have a total of 2 per location and only have to pay the additional one ourselves)


Identify two SPECIFIC funding sources for the design phase of your project and two SPECIFIC funding sources for the dissemination (implementation / distribution / commercialization) phase of your project. For each funding source, explain why this is a good fit for your project, and what SPECIFIC aspect of your project might the funding source support.



  • Food Systems Vision Prize (Grant of $200,000) if we win. We are currently semi-finalists.
    • FSVP could aid in giving us the initial funding to cover short term expenses necessary to kickstart our venture; bike and fuel for transportation, kiosks for selling our products at market, wages for our initial employees and laborers, food production equipment such as dehydrators, mills, and blenders, and packaging materials. Through the business plan we have created, being able to conduct our fieldwork with having this amount of fundraising will significantly aid in gathering the people and items necessary to make our venture run after our fieldwork.
  •  Lehigh University
    • Since we have yet to establish anything concrete in Sierra Leone, part of the design phase funding towards the venture must come from the University and GSIF Malnutrition researchers. Since we do not currently have a food design specialist, it is up to us to understand the needs of Sierra Leoneans and what resources we have to work with over there. For now, we are responsible for translating our research and into experiments with recipes that are affordable, nutritious, and flavorful according to us. Using resources like the internet, we can calculate the nutritional value of our products as well as being able to order supplements that our recipes may require, which can be hard to source during fieldwork and in Sierra Leone in general. GSIF/Personal funds are more expendable than in Sierra Leone, therefore our investment in our design helps mitigate the costs we may incur when trying to implement our ideas in fieldwork and for our employees after we leave.



  •  World Hope International 
    • Through our partnership with World Hope, our overhead costs are significantly reduced because of having the space of Betteh Bakery to work within. Since they cover utility and rent costs, we are able to keep production costs low meanwhile having the added benefit of branding and trust through our partnership. World Hope / Betteh Bakery carry more weight in Makeni than Lehigh might; through the credibility we gain, we are able to work within the established network and trust World Hope has with the community, making it easier to sell and spread word about our products.
  •  Lehigh University
    • When we go to Sierra Leone, we will be responsible for bringing ingredients and equipment such as the dehydrator, cooking instruments, and mill to be able to arrive ready to instruct our bakers how to create our recipes. Before our venture begins to sell products, we are responsible for covering the initial costs of goods sold. Additionally, to begin advertising our products beyond just word of mouth, bringing marketing supplies such as stickers will depend on us because it will be difficult to begin spreading awareness of the Newtrition venture without some kind of visual to keep us in the minds of our customers beyond the time they consume our products.


Identify five specific partnerships that you need to forge to advance your project forward with the ultimate goal of positively impacting at least one million people. Describe exactly how that partnership might help you achieve scale and why that entity might be willing to work with you.


  1. Mothers and parents of children in Sierra Leone: if we receive support from the community, they will keep us in business. Without them, there is no purpose to our project. They are the consumers. They can help in marketing our products through Word-of-Mouth and social media apps like Whatsapp, and they might be willing to work with us because our goal is to help them and the rest of their community. We want to establish an overall improved well-being in their health. 
  2. People in the community who have some experience or potential in running a social enterprise. We have to create partnerships with people who are willing to bring our venture further and run the management operations. Newtrition is a legally structured, social enterprise that will need a team of people to manage central operations after Lehigh exits their role in the project. Having this team of people will advance the project further because they will help expand the project and create more opportunities for children with malnutrition to access our products 
  3. People in the community who are willing to work to bake our food products, people who are looking for jobs. Although our venture is not focused on creating new jobs for people in Sierra Leone, one of our goals is to make connections with people who can work to produce food products. This is important because we need a mass population to be involved in production to be able to make a higher production of food. A larger production is important because as our venture grows and word of mouth spreads, we will have more mothers and families who will want to purchase our products, and we have to keep up with demand and increase production to get our products to everyone
  4. We need to make connections with people who are willing to participate in our venture and are data personnel. These people are important for our venture because they can work with the health departments in Sierra Leone and obtain data about malnutrition. We need this data because it will help us see if our venture is actually making progress and an impact on malnutrition. We can also use this data to identify which cities or areas of Sierra Leone are still undergoing severe malnutrition. Identifying these areas will help us target those villages so we can provide our products to those who really our products to ward off malnutrition
  5. We need to maintain our partnership with Betteh Bakery. We are using their bakeries to use their materials to make our products, so the people we hire in charge of making our foods can use their facilities. Our partnership with Betta bakery is important because without them, we would not have the materials for food product production. Our partnership with them is a foundation of our venture, and the use of their materials will allow our venture to continue food production that will help millions of people access our products through sales

Business Model:

Blog Post 10.docx

Ten practical lessons from the business (revenue) models of ventures we reviewed today (or others you research) as they relate to your venture.


  1.  Focusing on training workers and giving them the tools they need to succeed in your business opens your labor market to anyone willing to work
  2. Open Hiring Models are an efficient way around attracting unskilled laborers who may not have conventional job qualifications.
  3.  Providing products that work around potential customer constraints such as space or time creates inclusivity and simplifies the processes necessary for customer use, which increases the market outreach.
  4.  Brand associations aid in boosting the recognition and market a venture is able to pitch itself toward.
  5.  Establishing a distribution standard allows a business to track and manage consistent returns.
  6.  Encouraging self-sufficiency by allowing workers to take initiative to network and train others allows for the venture’s outreach to expand beyond its point of origin.
  7.  An open source business model like Barefoot College’s allows for people in different countries to be able to replicate and expand the venture.
  8. Partnering with community leaders allows for target customers to get the products and services that are aimed at empowering them meanwhile being distributed by trustworthy people.
  9. Reinvestment initiatives like Reel Gardening’s buy one donate one model allows customers to have a part in helping expand the venture’s outreach.
  10.  Tailoring production to the specific needs of communities ensures that a product can have its intended impact throughout a range of different conditions.


End to end solution

During production, hiring women for the bakery will be key for placing the responsibility of production in the hands of the customers we seek to impact and empower. Their judgement and expertise coupled with partnerships with different farmers and vendors for the ingredients and equipment needed will establish a relationship to keep our producers supplied with what they need for consistent, quality products. Wholesale market purchases will allow the bakery to get the cheapest price on ingredients depending on the number of vendors who have purchased our products. Our vendors purchasing from the bakery in wholesale quantities will allow the bakery to profit off its production yield meanwhile being able to sell the products individually at market at a profitable price. The faster our vendors are able to sell our products, the more incentive the bakery will have to produce more, which will allow us to begin scaling our production and maximizing profits for our workers to benefit from as costs drop and our market grows.


Blog Post 9

Question #1 is in the following link:



List ten lessons from the Business and Operations model of the Aravind Eye Hospital.


The complex issue is approached with a simple operation; was expanded through setting up a network of eyecare centers and using training and outreach camps to build up staff and to begin finding patients in need of treatment.


Rather than worrying about financing the project, emphasis was placed on getting to know patients and village locals to build a relationship on trust rather than approaching paternalistically. By seeing oneself in the people they are helping, they are able to operate on empathy.


By branding eye care as an issue that “sees” no difference in demographics with a mantra/belief, the venture is universal for patients and providers alike to be involved with. 


Establishing ownership in small communities empowers people to take responsibility and come together; the locals take the initiative to address and make others aware of the problem and solution, making it easier for eye care personnel to assess, diagnose, and treat patients at one time. 


Catering to the obstacles people have such as transportation and organizing the different levels of eyecare necessary for patients increases the efficiency of the system and eases the process patients must go through to be treated; if these are uniform, eye care services can treat more patients with less room to get off schedule.


Working with available equipment and fixing the price at a relatable, affordable price point makes the service inclusive for the people who need it the most.


Lowering the cost of communication and necessary face-to-face interactions through telecommunication prevents overwhelming, and for patients and providers alike to get the information they need in a timely fashion.


By charging only those who can afford the service at market price, and providing the service for free creates competition that ineffective systems cannot compete with. A system that is more productive and affordable than others can make up for the profits other systems lose out on.


Emphasizing domestic manufacturing and sourcing of employees and materials creates sustainability, which will lower the cost of services as the business is able to scale.


As the business scales, continuing to focus on quality and addressing an issue that ranges across all demographics fosters consistency and sustainability that can be emulated by other countries and systems with similar obstacles.


Blog Post #6

Does your work require IRB approvals? If Yes, articulate your detailed IRB strategy. If No, explain why you don’t need IRB approval and identify situations when you might need IRB approval. 


Our project does not require IRB approval because:

  1. We are working with a vulnerable population
    1. Pregnant women and children in Sierra Leone
  2. Identifiable public information
    1. According to the federal regulations, human subjects (pregnant women and children) are living human beings about whom an investigator obtains data through interaction or intervention with these individuals
  3. Informed consent 
    1. In our project, we will have interviews with women and children; we will have to explain the purpose of the research to them beforehand, in order for them to understand the purpose of our project 
    2. The interviews are completely voluntary; it will obtain verbal consent 
  4. Questionnaires
    1. The questionnaire is split into two sections. The first section is for each mother to get an understanding of her life, her children’s life, and her family’s eating habits, and the second section is split into questions about each of the three recipes and the food that each child tries is dependent on their age.


The only time where we will require IRB approval would be if:

  1. Risk of harm in social and behavioral sciences
    1. Invasion of privacy 
      1. Asking if whether or not women have had abortions 
    2. Breach of confidentiality 
    3. Study procedures 
      1. Risks are specific for time, situation and culture 
  2. If our study assigns human subjects to study activities based on an undesirable or unflattering physical characteristics as assessed by members of the research team 


Develop an outline for your mid-semester presentations. What supporting evidence will you provide for each point? How will you boost your credibility every step of the way?


  1. Introduction to Malnutrition in Sierra Leone/Prevention of Stunting for Children 
    1. Give quick statistic on overall malnutrition in the world


    1. Narrow it down by discussing the issue in Sierra Leone
      1. Statistic on malnutrition in kids and how it leads to stunting
        1. Statistics provide credibility
          1. They also provide a greater understanding of the rates of malnutrition/stunting, diseases and other catastrophes in Sierra Leone 
      2. Talk about factors that cause malnutrition
        1. Lack of nutrient dense foods
        2. Economic, political and geographical barriers in SL that prevent people from receiving sufficient amounts of life necessities 
          1. HIV/AIDS (deadly infectious diseases), malaria in women; high mortality rates; poverty and infrastructure (has kept clinics and medical hospitals from helping the community)
        3. Kids aren’t breastfed – many are given water instead
          1. Causes malnutrition at a very young age 
      3. Talk about how mothers are discouraged from seeking help because they are blamed for the malnutrition in kids and are sometimes shamed for it
        1. Although many mothers are not educated, or have no form of education; some of these mothers have no background on breastfeeding, which is worrisome for the health of their children 
  1. Our Approach
    1. Developing nutrient dense foods that fit within the tastes of the community
      1. Muffins
      2. Pudding
      3. Bouillon Cubes
      4. Peanut Butter Recipes
    2. Taste Testing in SL
      1. Have people try our different products and let us know if they like it or not, and give us any other feedback on it
      2. Provide certain explanation on the purpose of our research to children and mothers in order for them to further understand our project
        1. We will be provided with a translator 
      3. Taste-testing– For the children, we will observe their facial expression and reaction to each food. For children 18 months and younger, we will rely on behavioral observations and the help of their mothers to gauge whether or not they like each food they try.
    3. Expand on Relationships in SL
      1. Through communication and individual contribution to the community of Makeni 
      2. Employees at World Hope International (WHI) will not be conducting research, but they will help us connect with community health workers (CHWs) and community members. The pre-established relationship will help us build trust with members of the community.
      3. Current partnership with Bettah bakery: joint partnership with World Hope and local Wesleyan church
  2. Larger Context
    1. Provides work for bakers and vendors
    2. Adds to their economy – purchase of ingredients, new products in their market
    3. Helps to provide vitamins and increase health in children and women through the use of preservatives in the food products
      1. Prevent vitamin deficiencies 
  3. What’s Already Been Done
    1. Muffins are in late stage
    2. Pudding is in late stage
    3. Relationships with bakers and vendors already established
    4. Research further preservatives to use in muffins and pudding
  4. Work Done and Planned this Semester
    1. Done – N/A Yet
    2. Planned
      1. 3-4 new recipes
        1. Puddings and muffins 
      2. Figuring out which preservatives to use
        1. Acid Ascorbate and Soda water to preserve freshness and color in the food products 
        2. Run trials for these preservatives and figure out the packaging for these foods 

Blog Post 8

List five compelling take-aways from the Art of the Start. 


  1. It is critical to have a mantra for your organization – allows for everyone to have a core mindset


  1. 10, 20 30 – Presentations. The 10, 20, 30 technique is important to make sure that the audience knows we are knowledgeable about our presentation
    1. 10 slides in pitch
    2. 20 minutes
    3. 30 pt smallest font 


  1. Don’t ask people to do something you wouldn’t do
    1. There is no way you can expect someone to invest in you if you wouldn’t be a user of your own project/product


  1. It is important for our team to create our Milestones, Assumptions, and Tasks (MAT). If we learn to use MAT consistently, it will allow us to understand our project goals. MAT will help us divide our tasks among our group evenly which will allow us to be more efficient while working on our project milestones that will lead towards the achievement of our goal.


  1. It is important to have a team with a diverse set of skills. The more diverse our group is, the more perspectives we will have to be able to analyze and reflect on our project to make more improvements to our work. Different people with different skills can have different tasks in our project, and all these skills combined will result in a successful project and presentation.


Articulate your value propositions for your diverse customer segments. FYI: Value propositions should only be one sentence


For mothers who want to ensure the food safety of their children, our muffins and puddings allow children to receive the micronutrients they need on a daily basis, all while enjoying a tasty snack. 


For mothers who want to add health benefits to the meals they cook, our fortified bouillon cubes compliment every dish while adding nutritional value that is not available in other competitors like Maggi.


Discuss your Total Available Market and Total Addressable Market. List all your assumptions and hypotheses.


  • Total Available Market: 
    • 470,000 children in Sierra Leone that are malnourished and/or stunted


  • Total Addressable Market: 
    • Let’s assume that we can reach 1% of the market initially – realistic assumption because we are starting in one region before expanding to others.
    • 470,000*0.01= 4,700 children
    • This is realistic because our past taste testing showed that 98% of mothers in SL would buy our product to feed to their children. We cannot reach the entire country at once, which is why the 1% assumption was made. We hope that in the coming years, our market share grows and we reach more kids. The more kids we reach, the lower malnourishment and stunting will be prevalent in SL. Our product competes on value, not price (which is affordable), so it strengthens our presence in the market. There are no comparable products currently in the food market, which also helps in reducing the elasticity of our demand. This leaves people who want to make sure their kids are nourished properly with no other choice than to purchase our product.

Blog Post 7

Summarize and report on the results of the SKS exercise. 


For our SKS, we decided we are going to start doing more team-bonding exercises because they provide everyone with positive reinforcement. We all enjoyed learning what other people’s perspectives of us in the project were, and it definitely provided us all with reassurance and made us each confident we were doing our part on the team. We also decided that we are going to start becoming more involved with past members. Our team has 2 members who did the project last semester, and 4 new members who just joined. Since we are new members, we see each other more often because of the Tuesday seminar. It seems there is a slight disconnect between us and the past members. Each person does their part, but the dynamic between the 4 new members is different from the dynamic of the team as a whole, clearly because the new members spend more time together. We want to work on tightening this divide.

We want to keep the team dynamic between us 4, and extend it to the rest of the team. We all get along really well and enjoy each other’s company. I am so glad to have become friends with my new team members, and definitely want to keep the love we all share for each other. Our self-motivation is apparent in our ability to focus on our roles and how we are able to come together to address concerns and new directions in our research. We have began to encourage one another to lead more, so we have a healthy balance of supporting one another.

We want to stop simply giving updates at our meetings and teach each other more. A majority of our weekly meetings with our advisor are focused on simply giving updates, but they are not as in depth as they could be. If we each become more in depth with our updates, the rest of the team will become more knowledgeable on each aspect of our project and have a better holistic understanding of it. To change this, we intend to begin taking more time during team meetings to teach one another about the work we have accomplished rather than just updating one another. 


Develop a detailed Collaboration Plan for your team clearly articulating your Goals (Small g and Big G), Roles, Procedures, and Relationships.


Our big goal as a team is to begin to teach and inform each other about our individual work in the project. We are all very dedicated to our individual work, and have done a lot of research within our work individually. In many cases, if our other team members knew about the information we learned about, it would greatly benefit their own research too. Additionally, it is important for us to be aware of what everyone is working on to have a more well-rounded knowledgeable background of our project. Our small goals as a team include communicating more with past team members. Prior to the trip, it would be helpful to establish better relationships so we can understand their approach and how we can prepare ourselves for potential obstacles they experienced. The questions they gained from their fieldwork and time researching can help guide the goals we pursue and better prepare us for getting the answers we need to push the venture forward.

Our roles in our team consists of having small projects as subsets of our big project goal, which is to alleviate childhood malnutrition in Sierra Leone. Each one of us is working on one specific thing to contribute to our project as a whole. Samantha is working on developing new recipes to test during our summer fieldwork, Gabby and Evelyn are leading our application for the Food Systems Vision Prize to win a grant, Robert is working on developing the recipe for moringa-fortified bouillon cubes, and Kayla is working on writing the research paper based on past fieldwork. We proceed with our goals by developing a timeline of when we want to complete different tasks to complete these smaller projects within our malnutrition project as a whole. As a group, we hold each other accountable for completing these goals. Our relationship as a team is a strength of ours; we have a great group dynamic while working on our project together and outside the project, however we want to continue to improve our relationships in our team by teaching one another about our work to ensure we are knowledgeable beyond our individual roles and prevent knowledge gaps from forming between one another. Although our dynamic places transparency as one of our core values, teaching creates security for our group’s ability to speak on the efforts we have put forth, fosters the opportunity for us to suggest potential revisions or topics for one another to explore and anchors the groundwork we have all put in for one another. Despite now being separated physically from one another, we have more incentive to be each other’s checks and balances. 


GSIF Blog Post #5

  • List ten things that make you feel human.
    1. Mistakes or failures that I make, such as failing exams or missing deadlines
    2. Rejection
    3. Fluctuation of emotions – being happy one minute and disappointed the other
    4. Lack of motivation
    5. Being inefficient with time
    6. Procrastination
    7. Observing intricate and specific details in the environment around me
    8. Learning and understanding different concepts in class
    9. Having opinions about different political and social issues
    10. Listening to my conscious while making decisions about different issues in life
  • Articulate your philosophy of engagement as it pertains to your work with the GSIF / LVSIF.

Philosophy tells us how to think about different issues in the world, and our philosophy of engagement tells us how we should engage with our world, society, and own community. However, some people may believe that we should not engage with our society and just keep to ourselves. I believe that our engagement with issues should be limitless, letting our potential travel wherever it can. If we were to enclose our engagement to only our community and focus only on the people around us, we could have a more powerful impact because of our increased knowledge of the world around us. But this philosophy ignores communities and countries in need in the world around us. Such societies may not have people equipped with knowledge, educational capability, or financial stability to make a difference – they need support from people overseas or in different communities to help support them and grow as a community. And the only way they can achieve this is if other people begin to engage with the world outside of their primary residence. This idea is important to my work with GSIF because it is one of the reasons for why I decided to undergo my research project – to contribute and exercise my skills outside of my community so I can support and aid others who lack the capacity to do so. The engagement we should make with those around us should be tolerant, humbling, and caring, but they should also be clear, direct, and straightforward without any concealment. As I refer to direct and clear engagement, I refer to the idea that our engagement with the world and people around us should be realistic, without hiding any challenges or conflicts in a situation to make someone feel better. We have to be clear about what the world may make us encounter in the future. This idea is relevant to my project because me and my team have to be realistic about how we can solve malnutrition in Sierra Leone by accepting the fact that we will not immediately solve malnutrition in the country – but that we are taking steps towards reducing malnutrition by creating products contained with nutrient and slowly introducing them to individual villages. Additionally, when we introduce our products, we have to make our consumers aware that our product will not magically cure childrens’ malnutrition, but that our product gives them nutrients that they do not get based on their typical daily diet. Challenges when engaging with different people and communities is introducing new and unfamiliar concepts that create discomfort and unfamiliarity despite creating multiple benefits. It is a challenge to deviate from what one is familiar with in life, even though you know you will benefit from it. To accommodate oneself and others who go through changes in life, it is easier for one to slowly delve into change by taking steps towards making a difference in habits, actions, and behaviors. In our work with GSIF, our group is introducing Sierra Leoneans to new foods that provide nutrients their traditional foods would not otherwise by incorporating ingredients their community is already familiar with, creating new recipes with a similar taste to their traditional food, and distributing food by selling it in bakeries Sierra Leoneans are already familiar with, rather than just giving it away for free as a stranger, which would result in a waste of food because villages and families would not consume the product due to mistrust and extreme unfamiliarity

GSIF Post 4

Based on your life experience, skills and interests, what would a design process that is both uniquely yours and effective look like? 

We feel that for something to be uniquely ours is something that hasn’t been done before, and for it to be effective it has to treat the problem properly. For example, we are working on different recipes, all created by people in our group, making them unique to us. They are affordable and nutrient-dense foods that mothers can purchase for their children, making them as effective as they are unique.

-One design process would be to create a study that works toward research in our project of addressing malnutrition in children under the age of five years old. These research designs would contribute to background, purpose of research, questions and hypothesis; our design would provide information on reliability and validity on each measure based on data. In addition, our project would contribute to taste-testing, sampling or recruiting participants, and making sure we have the right supplements/ingredients for our recipes. 


Identify your three most important stakeholders and list five UNIQUE attributes for each one of them. 

  • Mothers and their kids:
    • Will be the ones using our product the most, even though it’s available to everyone in Sierra Leone
    • Their feedback will be most important
    • Greatest need for product
    • Their feedback will help us make ingredient choices and create successful business and marketing plans 
    •  Main drive/motivation behind our entire project
      • Mothers with children will be approached and asked if they are interested in participating in our research 
      • Children are critical to our research because they are the target audience of the products 
  • Vendors:
    • Will be selling our product and getting it out into the market
    • Will be our partners in this venture
    • Are going to help a lot in marketing the product
    • The vendors will be those who are responsible for integrating our product into the village’s culture
    • They will be the image of our product when mothers buy them
  • Bakers:
    • Will be making our product before it goes to be sold
    • Partnership with them is one of the most valuable because without them, we can’t move forward in our venture at all
    • Provide them with our ingredients/recipes/preservatives 
    • Our best insight on local 
    • Interact with mothers and other members of families who may play a factor in the decision of purchasing our products


Identify three ways in which you will validate your project concept, technology, usability, and business model.


Three ways in which we will validate our project concept is through the usage of human subjects research– provide information on the reliability and validity of each measure; we will have references or results prior to each measure; and we will work towards stating the details of the statistical or qualitative analysis that we will use to analyze this data 

The purpose of our research is to nutrient-dense foods to alleviate malnutrition in Sierra Leone in children 6 months to 5 years. We want to see if women and children in Sierra Leone like our products and if they would be successful as a treatment for chronic malnutrition in children. Their feedback will help us make ingredient choices and create successful business and marketing plans.

Furthermore, we will have a questionnaire that we will use for mothers in Sierra Leone that will be used to get a better understanding of their family’s daily lives and whether they would buy our products. The questionnaire will give us feedback on the recipes and cost needs to answer our two main questions of our research.

Taste-Testing: During each interview, we will ask participants’ children to try our three products. For the children, we will observe their facial expression and reaction to each food. For children 18 months and younger, we will rely on behavioral observations and the help of their mothers to gauge whether or not they like each food they try. Children that are a little older can make decisive ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers, but we will most likely still need to observe their behavior to understand if they like or dislike our recipes. Children are critical to our research because they are the target audience of the products. Our recipes are designed to treat micronutrient deficiencies in children between six months and five years old. It is essential that we have a better understanding of whether or not children in Sierra Leone like our products before we finalize our recipes. Mothers will be asked to consent to the children’s taste-testing. 

Our plan is to recruit participants through the help of World Hope International (WHI), a non profit organization located in Makeni, Sierra Leone. We have worked most closely with Allieu Bangura, Global Director of Health and Nutrition at WHI. The pre-established relationship will help us build trust with members of the community. WHI and previous student researchers in Sierra Leone have recommended that this be our plan for recruiting participants, and they have explained that this is the most effective way to interact with people in Makeni. 


Give three examples of something very interesting you learned from a friend that was a completely alien concept to you.

One of the first things I learned at Lehigh is the idea the possibility of exploring multidisciplinary pathways, which I am practicing through my pre-medical track and art major. I have learned that there is value to having diverse academic interests because it allows one to look at new ideas through different perspectives. Something else I learned was that American culture is truthfully extremely different from cultures around the world. I went to Switzerland for winter break, and although we had the same privileges as we do in America, the culture is different, especially around the purpose of life and responsibility as a citizen. Finally, I learned the importance of any experience abroad as a tourist and a citizen. Both experiences are completely different, and having an experience abroad as a citizen with friends from such a country are integral to truly learning the country’s different culture and traditions

GSIF Blog Post #3


  • List the top 20 questions your team needs to answer to advance the venture forward. Categorize the questions if necessary.



    1. What is the project about?


  • Why is the project important?


    1. Who is impacted by the project?
    2. What is the main objective/goal?


  • What steps will be taken to reach the objective?


    1. Where will we execute our project?
    2. Who says those people need help?
    3. Why can’t they help themselves?
    4. Why can’t someone else help them?
    5. Why do you think your project will be successful?
    6. What are some of the nutrients used for the project?
    7. How much culinary experience is needed for the project?
    8. Why do you think people will buy your product?
    9. How do you intend to keep the project running after you leave?
    10. What is the timeframe for your project?
    11. How will you use your time wisely?
    12. How are you qualified for this project?


  •  How do you think the community will react to your project?


  1.  How will you incorporate the project into their culture?
  2. Will your community’s culture accept the project?


  1. Develop and Visualize the Theory of Change (Logic Model) for your venture.


Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Goal Alignment
  • Time
  • Research
  • Ingredients
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Preservatives
  • Funding
  • Materials (packaging)
  • Recipe experimentation
  • Communication with local businesses
  • Experimenting with packaging
  • Contact packaging professionals
  • Developed recipes and packaging for products
  • Maintain partnerships with vendors
  • Continued feedback from community
  • Healthier, well-nourished kids
  • Reduced growth stunting
  • Affordable and accessible nutrient dense foods
  • Goal: reduce malnutrition and stunting
  • Outcome: achieves that 🙂

3. Develop a M&E plan for your venture. – Clearly list all assumptions. – Identify short-term and long-term success metrics. – (Optional) identify specific methods to measure the metrics


How is it calculated?


What is the current value?


What is the target value?


How will it be measured?


How often will it be measured?


Who will measure it?


Where will it be reported?

Goal Reduce malnutrition and stunting in children under the age of 5  Research: 40% of children are malnourished/have suffered from stunting  Ideally 0%, but very difficult to achieve, so any progress is valuable  Measured through developing communication with community/possible evaluation technique  Monthly  Lehigh student team  Blog posts, papers
Outcomes (problems solved)  Healthier, well-nourished kids

Reduced growth and stunting

Affordable and accessible nutrient dense foods

Calculated through research   N/A – Read above regarding current malnutrition Ideally 0% of malnourished kids, but very difficult to achieve, so any progress is valuable  Analyzing sales, health of children (specifics on how to do this decided once product is finalized)  Monthly Lehigh student team  Blog posts, papers
Outputs (what we ultimately want and get out of our research)  Developed recipes – products we can sell Analyzing nutritional value of recipes 1 At least 4, going to experiment with other recipes (ST-  throughout semester) Analyzing sales, consumption, etc. once introduced in marketplace (LT) Monthly Lehigh student team staying in SL Blog posts, papers

Spring outcomes/GOALS: 3+ new recipes (muffin,pudding, bouillon cubes/pb balls), developed packaging for recipes, analyzing the costs and taking them into consideration, make sure we use products that are accessible to the community in our recipes

Summer outcomes/GOALS: feedback on recipes, even if negative, progress based on feedback, continue work we’ve been doing; 100 of each product a day sold by end of fieldwork